Monday, September 16, 2013

Bombardier CSeries 9/16.2013/

  1. Bombardier CSeries


    CSeries Flight Test Vehicle (FTV1) rolled-out at Mirabel Airport.
    Role Narrow-body jet airliner
    National origin Canada
    Manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace
    First flight September 16, 2013[1]
    Introduction planned: September 2014 (CS100)[2]
    planned: end of 2014 (CS300)
    Status CS100: early production/test phase
    CS300: in development
    Unit cost CS100: US$ 62 million
    CS300: US$ 71 million[3]

    The Bombardier CSeries is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners that are being developed by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace. Models are the 110-seat CS100, and the 135-seat CS300. These were initially named C110 and C130, respectively. In certification documentation, the CSeries family is designated Bombardier BD-500, with suffix -1A10 for the CS100 and -1A11 for the CS300.[4]

    This new CSeries jet, which offers 110-seat and 135-seat versions, competes with the Boeing 737 Next Generation 737-600, 737-700, Airbus A318, Airbus A319, and Embraer 195. Bombardier claims the CSeries will burn 20% less fuel per trip than these competitors.[5]

    The first flight for the CS100 occurred on September 16, 2013.[6]

    Contents [hide]
    1 Development
    1.1 Background
    1.2 CSeries
    1.3 Restarting programme
    1.4 Renamed models
    1.5 Recent developments
    2 Design
    3 Orders and deliveries
    4 Specifications
    5 See also
    6 References
    7 External links

    During the demise of Fokker, Bombardier considered purchasing that company in order to gain access to the Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft. They eventually decided against a purchase and ended discussions in February 1996.[7]

    The Bombardier BRJX, or "Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion", was a project for a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJX was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating, and underwing engine pods. It was projected to seat 80 to 120 passengers, abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318/737-500/737-600. The project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.

    Meanwhile, the 72-seat Embraer E-170 came to market (production began in 2002), followed by the 110-seat E-195. Both models were widely adopted, and Bombardier had no product to compete with them in that capacity range.

    In July 2004, Bombardier announced the development of the CSeries family of airliners to replace the cancelled BRJX project. The CSeries would be larger than the current Canadair Regional Jets, and capable of carrying 110 to 130 passengers. For the first time, Bombardier would be competing directly with the smallest airliners from Boeing and Airbus. At the time, Bombardier expected the aircraft to be available by 2013.

    In March 2005, Bombardier's board decided to promote the plane to airlines to gather advance orders. Two models were announced: the C110 with layouts from 100–125 seats, and the C130 with layouts from 120–145 seats. The CSeries would feature new, more fuel-efficient engines and a higher percentage of composite materials in its fuselage,[8] a strategy similar to that used on the wide-body Boeing 787 Dreamliner and forthcoming Airbus A350 XWB.

    The new aircraft would seat passengers in a 2–3 arrangement in coach and a 2–2 arrangement in business/first class, similar to the Boeing 717. With the 2–3 arrangement, 80% of the seats would be aisle or window seats, contrary to 'middle' seats (seats set between two other seats). The aircraft would have under-wing turbofans. The CSeries' cross sectionwas designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.

    In May 2005, Bombardier secured agreements with the Federal Government of Canada, the Provincial Government of Quebec, and the Government of the United Kingdom for support and loans for the CSeries project. The Canadian government has committed US$350 million in financing; the British government has committed US$300 million. The program will cost about $3.5 billion, and Bombardier will share the cost with suppliers and governments.[9]

    The fuselage was to be built by China Aviation Industry Corporation (AVIC)'s affiliate Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.[8] Final assembly of the aircraft was to be at Mirabel Airport,Mirabel, Quebec, outside Montreal.[10] Substantial portions of the aircraft were to be constructed at Bombardier facilities in Belfast, Northern Ireland.[11]

    On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced it would not go forward with plans to develop the CSeries after it had failed to secure significant orders to that point. It stated that it would keep a small team of roughly 50 employees working on the CSeries marketing plan, and would include other risk-sharing partners in the program.[12][13] With the CSeries on hold, Bombardier announced on 18 February 2006 that it would begin work on the 100-seat CRJ1000 regional jet.
    Restarting programme

    CSeries display mockup, presented during the 2008 Farnborough Airshow.

    On 31 January 2007, Bombardier announced that work on the aircraft would continue.[14] In November 2007, Bombardier announced that the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan (now PW1000G) would be the exclusive powerplant for the CSeries.[15] On 22 February 2008, Bombardier Aerospace announced that its parent company's Board of Directors authorized it to offer formal sales proposals of the CSeries family to airline customers.[16]

    On 13 July 2008, in a press conference on the eve of the opening of the Farnborough Airshow, Bombardier Aerospace announced the launch of the CSeries, with a letter of interest for 60 aircraft (including 30 options) from Lufthansa. The final assembly of the aircraft would be done at a new assembly facility to be built beside the existing one where the CRJ700 and CRJ900 are assembled in Mirabel, north of Montreal.[17] Ghafari Associates was retained to develop the Montreal manufacturing site to accommodate CSeries production.[18] The CSeries aircraft will use the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite, an integrated cockpit system which incorporates 15 inch displays, with comprehensive navigation, communications, surveillance, engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS), and aircraft maintenance systems.[19]

    The CSeries is designed for the 100- to 149-seat market category. Bombardier estimated this market to be 19,333 aircraft,[20] representing more than $250 billion revenue over the next 20 years. Bombardier expects to be able to capture up to half of this market with the CSeries.[21] In 2009, first flight for the CSeries was expected in 2012.[22]

    In 2009, Mongolian airline Eznis Airways was reported to have signed a letter of interest for seven CSeries aircraft.[23] Qatar Airways had previously been in talks with Bombardier, but broke off talks in 2009 after disagreeing on terms.[24] An unnamed lessor was understood to be in talks for 40 aircraft.[25] On 11 March 2009, Bombardier announced the first firm orders for the CSeries. Lufthansa, who originally had signed a letter of interest for 60 aircraft, firmed up an order for 30. The aircraft are to be operated by Lufthansa subsidiarySwiss European Air Lines.[26]
    Renamed models

    In March 2009 Bombardier also announced that the C110 and C130 were being redesignated CS100 and CS300, respectively.[27] The models were offered in normal and extended range (ER) versions, additionally, an extra thrust (XT) version of the CS300 was also offered.[28] The ER and XT versions were removed in 2012 by Bombardier, providing a standard range equal to the one previously identified as extended range.[29]

    On 30 March 2009, Bombardier inked the second CSeries order, with airliner lessor Lease Corporation International (LCI) of Dublin, Ireland ordering 3 CS100s and 17 CS300s, becoming the launch customer of the latter.[30] LCI also holds options for a further 20 aircraft.[31]

    In January 2010, JP Morgan reported that Bombardier was considering a 150-seat version of the CSeries. Bombardier called the report speculative, noting that the CSeries development program "is in the joint definition phase where we will be able to add greater product definition and that includes the ability to make changes before the final design is frozen".[32]

    Republic Airways Holdings ordered 40 CS300 aircraft with options for an additional 40 in February 2010.[33] In March 2010, easyJet stated that the company was having “ongoing discussions with Bombardier regarding its CSeries.[34] In December 2009, United Airlines expressed interest in using the CS100 and CS300 for replacing its retiring 737–300 and 737-500 aircraft.[35] But no plans or orders had been made by United Airlines as of December 2011.

    Bombardier Aerospace announced the sale of up to 30 CS300 aircraft to Asian launch customer, Korean Air, at the 2011 Paris Air Show.

    On 1 June 2011, Braathens Leasing Limited in Sweden announced that it had placed a firm order for five CS100 and five CS300 aircraft with options for ten more aircraft. With the order, Bombardier had secured a combined 100 firm orders.[36] On 7 June 2011, Bombardier announced that an unnamed airline had placed a firm order for three CSeries airliners, with options for three more.[37] On 20 June 2011, Bombardier announced it had secured a launch customer for the CS100 at the Paris Air Show. The undisclosed airline signed a firm order for 10 aircraft with an option for six more.[38] On 21 June 2011, Korean Air announced signing a letter of intent to purchase 10 CS300 plus an additional 10 options and 10 purchasing rights on CS300; this agreement was converted to a firm order on 29 July 2011.[39][40] On 24 June 2011, the last day of the 2011 Paris Show, Bombardier announced a deal with an undisclosed European carrier to purchase ten CS100s.[41]

    On 17 August 2011, at the MAKS Airshow, Bombardier announced an agreement with Ilyushin Finance for up to 30 CSeries aircraft.[42]Atlasjet announced plans on 15 November 2011 to purchase ten CS300 aircraft with options for another five.[43] In July 2012, Latvia'sairBaltic announced plans to order 20 CSeries jets for delivery starting in 2015, in place of the Airbus A319s which had been previously considered.[44][45] airBaltic announced a firm order for 10 CS300 aircraft plus an option for 10 additional aircraft in December 2012.[46]
    Recent developments]

    The CSeries programme has several major suppliers, including Shenyang Aircraft (centre fuselage), Alenia Aeronautica (horizontal and vertical stabilisers), Fokker Elmo (wiring and interconnection systems), C&D Zodiac (interiors), Parker Hannifin (flight control, fuel and hydraulics systems), Liebherr-Aerospace (air management system), Goodrich (flap and slat actuation systems and engine nacelles), and Rockwell Collins (avionics).[47][48]

    AirAsia CEO Tony Fernandes and others during the presentation of a proposed 160-seat version of the CS300 airliner

    The first flight was initially planned for the second half of 2012.[49] In 2010, deliveries of the CS100 was planned to start in 2013, and CS300 deliveries were to follow a year later.[50]

    In March 2012, Bombardier specified the target date for the first flight was December 2012,[51] and reaffirmed that date in June 2012.[52]A news report in June 2012 stated that first CS100 delivery remained scheduled for the end of 2013.[52][53]

    At the Farnborough Airshow in July 2012, Bombardier started discussions with AirAsia about a proposed 160-seat configuration for the CS300 airliner.[54] In November 2012, this configuration was included in the CS300 project, although AirAsia rejected this proposal.[55]

    During a conference call in November 2012, Bombardier Aerospace acknowledged a delay of six months, for both first flight and entry into service of the CS100, due to issues with some unspecified suppliers.[56] This pushes initial deliveries to customers into 2014. The CS300 program remains on schedule.[56]

    On February 20, 2013 Bombardier announced that Ilyushin Finance Co., which in August 2011 signed a letter of intent, converted that into a purchase agreement, subject to approval by its shareholders, for 32 CS300 aircraft.[57] On the same day, Pratt & Whitneyannounced that its PW1500G had been granted certification by Transport Canada.[58] The PW1500G powers the CSeries.

    During its earnings call on February 21, 2013, Bombardier announced that the first completed CSeries aircraft would be presented publicly the following month.[59][60] An extensive update on the CSeries program was presented on March 7, 2013; the first Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) was displayed in an almost completed state, along with three other FTVs in various states of assembly.[61][62] The 160-seat "Extra Capacity" version of the CS300, featuring two sets of over wing emergency exits, was also presented.[61]

    In a press release on 25 March 2013, Bombardier disclosed that the electrical system of the first flight test aircraft was successfully powered up and that tests on the static test airframe proceeded satisfactorily and on schedule.[63]

    On 6 June 2013, Bombardier announced that Gulf Air ordered ten CS100s.[64]

    In June 2013, due to upgrades of the aircraft's software and final ground testing, Bombardier shifted the timeline for the first flight into July 2013.[65] On 24 July 2013, Bombardier disclosed that, due to a longer than expected system integration process, the first flight will take place "in the coming weeks".[66]

    On 30 August 2013, Bombardier received the flight test permit from Transport Canada, granting permission to perform high speed taxi testing and flight testing.[1] On Friday, September 13, 2013, Bombardier set the first flight for Monday, September 16, 2013 “pending optimal weather conditions and aircraft readiness.”[67]

    On September 16, 2013, the CS100 took its maiden flight for the first time, making the inaugural flight of the CSeries, from Mirabel Airport north of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, accompanied by a Global 5000 chase plane.[68][69]

    Bombardier CSeries CS100 and CS300 illustration with front, side and top views

    The Bombardier CSeries aircraft will contain a high usage of composite materials and larger windows.[70] The CSeries cabin will feature large, rotating overhead storage bins, allowing each passenger to stow a sizeable carry-on bag overhead.[70] Compared to the cabins of current in-service narrowbody aircraft, the CSeries is to provide airlines with the highest overhead bin volume per passenger and a wider aisle that would allow for faster boarding and disembarkation of passengers.[70]

    The CSeries aircraft contain 70% advanced materials comprising 46% composite materials and 24% aluminium-lithium which allows for a 15% lower seat-mile cost and a significant reduction in maintenance costs.[71] Computer software design tools were used on the project, including CATIA, HyperSizer, and similar technology that was employed in the Learjet 85 programme.[72]
    Orders and deliveries

    Net orders (cumulative by year)
    As of 30 June 2013[73][74]

    See also: List of Bombardier CSeries orders

    The Bombardier CSeries family of aircraft has the following firm orders, as of 30 June 2013:[73][74]
    CS100 CS300 Total firm orders
    63 114 177
    Orders and deliveries by year[74]
    2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total
    Net orders 0 50 40 43 15 29177
    Deliveries − − − − − −−

    Cockpit crew 2 pilots
    Cabin crew 2 to 5 flight attendants 3 to 5 flight attendants
    Passengers 125 (1-class, dense)
    110 (1-class, standard)
    108 (2-class, mixed) 160 (1-class, extra capacity)
    150 (1-class, dense)
    135 (1-class, standard)
    130 (2-class, mixed)
    Seat Pitch 28 in (71 cm) (1-class, extra capacity)
    30 in (76 cm) (1-class, dense)
    32 in (81 cm) (1-class, standard)
    36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, mixed)
    Seat Width 19 in (48 cm)
    Length 35.0 m (114.8 ft) 38.7 m (127 ft)
    Wingspan 35.1 m (115 ft)
    Wing Area (net) 112.3 m2 (1,209 sq ft)
    Tail height 11.5 m (38 ft)
    Fuselage max diameter 3.7 m (12 ft)
    Cabin width 3.28 metres (129 in)
    Cabin height 2.11 metres (83 in)
    Cabin length 23.7 metres (78 ft) 27.5 metres (90 ft)
    Cargo Volume 23.7 m3 (840 cu ft) 31.6 m3 (1,120 cu ft)
    Max takeoff weight 58,967 kg (130,000 lb) 65,317 kg (144,000 lb)
    Max landing weight 50,802 kg (112,000 lb) 57,606 kg (127,000 lb)
    Maximum cargo payload 3,629 kg (8,000 lb) 4,853 kg (10,700 lb)
    Maximum payload (total) 14,583 kg (32,150 lb) 18,552 kg (40,900 lb)
    Max range 5,463 km (2,950 nmi)
    Max cruise speed Mach 0.82 (870 km/h, 470 kn, 541 mph)
    Typical cruise speed Mach 0.78 (828 km/h, 447 kn, 514 mph)
    Take off run at MTOW 1,463 m (4,800 ft) 1,890 m (6,200 ft)
    Landing field length at MLW 1,356 m (4,449 ft) 1,494 m (4,902 ft)
    Service ceiling 12,497 m (41,001 ft)
    Engines 2× Pratt & Whitney PW1500G
    Thrust per Engine 84.1 kN (18,900 lbf) – PW1519G
    93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
    103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G 93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
    103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G

    Bombardier released the following performance specifications, regarding operations from urban airports with short runways and steep approaches, like London City Airport andToronto Island Airport.
    Urban Operations
    Max takeoff weight 53,060 kg (117,000 lb) 58,967 kg (130,000 lb)
    Max landing weight 49,895 kg (110,000 lb) 55,111 kg (121,500 lb)
    Maximum cargo payload 3,629 kg (8,000 lb) 4,853 kg (10,700 lb)
    Maximum payload (total) 13,676 kg (30,150 lb) 16,284 kg (35,900 lb)
    Max range 2,778 km (1,500 nmi)
    Take off run at MTOW 1,219 m (3,999 ft) 1,524 m (5,000 ft)
    Landing field length at MLW 1,341 m (4,400 ft) 1,448 m (4,751 ft)

    Notes: Data are preliminary and may change.
    Sources: Bombardier Aerospace[29][75][76][77] and Pratt & Whitney[78]
    See also]

    Aviation portal
    Canada portal

    Graphical comparison between comparable aircraft, based on the number of seats.
    In blue the CSeries, in grey similar in-production aircraft and in orange similar in project-phase aircraft.Related development
    Bombardier CRJ700/900/1000
    Comac C919 (agreement between Comac and Bombardier for program commonalities)[79]
    Irkut MS-21 (agreement between Irkut and Bombardier for joint customer support)[80]Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
    Airbus A320neo
    Boeing 737 MAX
    Embraer E-Jets/E-Jets E2
    Kawasaki YPX
    Mitsubishi Regional Jet
    Sukhoi Superjet 100/130Related lists
    List of civil aircraft

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