Thursday, March 31, 2011

A Blow Against Democracy in Canada

here are once again efforts to exclude the Green Party from the televised leaders' debates.

Here’s what you can do:

1. Visit to sign our petition, donate, and more!
2. Vote in CBC’s poll on whether Elizabeth should be invited to the leaders’ debates
3. Email the consortium members CBC, CTV, Global, TVA and Radio Canada.
4. Email the party leaders: Stephen HarperJack LaytonMichael Ignatieff and Gilles Duceppe. Tell them to press the networks to include Elizabeth May.
5. Visit the Facebook pages of the party leaders, and write on their walls that you want them to demand Elizabeth May be in the debates.
6. Tweet your outrage! Use the hashtag #EMayIn.
7. Post about this on Facebook.
8. Tell your friends and family!

What other people are saying:

"It's bad enough that the Greens got nearly a million votes last election yet got no seats. It's insane that they can't even get on TV. This is UTTERLY outrageous." 
-Andrew Coyne, national editor of Maclean’s magazine, via twitter.
"It is a common sense proposition that anyone who received a million votes has a right to be heard… To exclude [May] is to invite yet another examination of why we as a society delegate to television networks the right to decide issues like this.” 
-Elly Alboim, Associate Professor of Journalism and former Parliamentary Bureau Chief for CBC TV News 
“It is time for the people of this country to stand up and let the media and the politicians know that an election is a time for people’s voices to be heard and Elizabeth May speaks for a lot of people in this country."
-Judy Rebick, Sam Gindin Chair in Social Justice and Democracy at Ryerson University
“The decision by the broadcast consortium to exclude Green Party Leader Elizabeth May from the 2011 leaders' debate is mystifying. .. The broadcast consortium should first apologize to May and reverse its decision."
-Vancouver Sun Editorial, 30 Mar 2011
"Democracy demands that the media simply relay Parties positions without attempting to control the message. Excluding the leader of a party that garnered 1 out of every 15 votes in the 2008 federal election is just plain wrong”
-Cal Millar, President of Channel Zero.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

New fighter jets Canada plans to buy will be more than $100 million each — at least $25 million more per plane than government estimates — according to a top U.S. budget watchdog : GAO

New fighter jets Canada plans to buy will be more than $100 million each — at least $25 million more per plane than government estimates — according to a top U.S. budget watchdog.

Conservative government officials have said 65 new joint strike fighters being built to replace Canada's F-18 jets will cost about $75 million each, about $9 billion with training and an additional $200-$300 million a year in maintenance.

But Mike Sullivan, director of acquisition management at the US General Accountability Office, said he doesn't know where that estimate comes from.

"That's not a number that I am familiar with at all," he said in an interview Tuesday with CBC's Power & Politics with Evan Solomon, cautioning he hasn't seen the methodology behind the numbers.

Sullivan said the estimated cost of the F-35A model that Canada is buying is "in the low 100 millions."

"Probably somewhere between $110-115 million," he said.

Canada buying jets at bottom of cost curve: Tories' Hawn

A prominent Conservative admitted to CBC that the cost of the F-35 fight jets might not be as the government has promised.

Earlier on Power & Politics, Conservative MP Laurie Hawn said Canada is buying the planes at the peak of their production, making them cheaper than the $133 million the U.S. estimates their jets will cost. Hawn also said the $133 million estimate is an average of three models being built, of which the Canadian jet is the cheapest.

"We're buying our planes at the bottom of that [cost] curve," said Hawn, who was parliamentary secretary to Defence Minister Peter MacKay before the election was called.

But when asked whether the cost could change, Hawn replied: "Anything can happen."

Sullivan said that while the last planes off the production line cost less than the first ones, Canada's jets are set to be delivered in 2016, which he viewed as early in the production run.

"That tells me I don't think that's going to be the least expensive buy," he said.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

An odd way to woo retirees.... Shelly Glover your time as secretary to the Finance has an expiry date.”

1. An odd way to woo retirees. The Conservatives have run afoul of Canada’s national seniors organization after a rising star of the Tory caucus described Winnipeg Liberal MP Anita Neville, 68, as having “passed her expiry date.”

Shelly Glover – the Tory incumbent in the Manitoba riding of St. Boniface who is a bilingual police officer and was recently named parliamentary secretary to the Finance Minister – made the controversial remarks in an interview with Global News.

News reports say Ms. Glover was asked about the fact a Conservative candidate had yet to be named to run against Ms. Neville, who has held the riding of Winnipeg South Centre since 2000. “We need some fresh blood, we need some new people who have some new ideas and who are willing to stand up for their constituents. And I’m afraid Ms. Neville has passed her expiry date,” she said.

Ms. Glover’s spokesperson later told Global News that the comment was a reference to how long Ms. Neville has held the seat and not a comment about her age.

CARP, a national group that advocates on behalf of seniors and retired Canadians, is not convinced. The organization issued a news release late Monday urging Ms. Glover to retract her comments and apologize.

“Ageism seems to be the final frontier of acceptable discrimination,” CARP vice-president Susan Eng said in a statement. “Even when all the parties are actively wooing older voters, a sitting MP thinks this is appropriate…. Ms. Glover should retract her comments about Ms. Neville and apologize to the voters of her riding and Ms. Neville’s riding for offending and marginalizing a significant portion of their voter base.”

All parties make no secret of the fact that they are trying very hard to target seniors’ votes this campaign. Sensing opportunity, the Liberals chimed in themselves Tuesday morning.

“I am not so much offended for myself as I am outraged on behalf of all seniors – especially senior women – whom the Conservatives seem to think are past their ‘expiry’ dates,” Ms. Neville said in a statement. “There are millions of seniors out there who live active and productive lives, who continue to contribute to the Canadian economy by staying in the workforce, whether by choice or because they have to in order to make ends meet and pay the bills.

“For Ms. Glover to refer to me in this insulting way is a slur against all seniors. On their behalf I demand an apology.”


UPDATE Ms. Glover issued a statement on the issue Tuesday morning, just after 10 a.m.

“First of all, I would like to remind seniors in the Winnipeg area that Ms. Neville just voted to oppose the Conservative Government’s plan to increase [Guaranteed Income Supplement] payments to the most vulnerable, lowest income seniors in Canada -- a measure that would benefit single seniors by up to $600 and senior couples by up to $840.

“My remarks were clear: I was referring to Ms. Neville's performance as an MP, and only that. In my opinion, Ms. Neville has ceased to be an effective representative of her constituents. I believe someone new, of any age, with new ideas would be a more effective representative for the people of Winnipeg South Centre."


2. On tap today. The Globe’s Jane Taber reports that Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff will unveil his first platform plank Tuesday – a pledge to help low-income Canadians pay for post-secondary education.

Meanwhile, Conservative Leader Stephen Harper is in Regina and Winnipeg Tuesday focussing on small business issues. A Tory official says Mr. Harper will “announce an incentive for small businesses to expand and hire new employees.”

The official says the party will also “continue to demonstrate the difference between our low tax plan to complete the economic recovery and the Coalition’s high tax agenda that would stall our recovery, kill jobs and set hardworking families back.”

It is not clear whether Tuesday’s announcement is connected to a similar item that appeared in the 2011 budget. It included a Hiring Credit for Small Business, which was described as a temporary measure that would allow a credit of up to $1,000 against a small employer’s increase in its 2011 EI premiums over those paid in 2010.

NDP leader Jack Layton is in Brantford to announce measures expected to focus on credit card fees. The NDP will also be highlighting the fact that its tour so far has focused on Conservative ridings.

3. Revisionist coalition history. Conservative campaign manager Jenni Byrne used her Twitter account Monday night to challenge reported comments from Tom Flanagan, a former Harper campaign manager. Mr. Flanagan said this week that Mr. Harper, when he was leader of the Official Opposition, must have wanted to become prime minister in 2004 without an election.

Mr. Flanagan’s comments to PostMedia contradict what Mr. Harper said Monday, when he categorically denied that his 2004 news conference announcing he, NDP leader Jack Layton and Bloc Quebecois Leader Gilles Duceppe had written to the Governor General regarding the potential defeat of the Paul Martin minority Liberal government was part of a plan for him to assume power without an election – the very thing he is currently accusing Mr. Ignatieff of plotting.

“I can’t see what other point there would have been in writing the letter except to remind everybody that it was possible to change the government in that set of circumstances without an election,” said Mr. Flanagan.

The Conservative response?

“Flanagan agrees he wasn't in Ottawa or involved - only coalition remains the deal with the Iggy [Liberal Party], NDP, Bloc Québecois,” Ms. Byrne said on Twitter.

Asked for comment, Mr. Harper’s spokesman Dimitri Soudas offered a similar response. “Flanagan didn’t know,” said Mr. Soudas. “He even said so. And he wasn’t in Ottawa.”

The next prime minister of Canada could be in a position to appoint four Supreme Court of Canada justices.

The next prime minister of Canada could be in a position to appoint four Supreme Court of Canada justices.

The nine-member court's mandatory retirement age is 75, and four will reach this milestone by the end of 2015. Morris J. Fish will be the first to turn 75 on November 16, 2013.

Ian Binnie and Louis LeBel will be 75 in 2014, and Marshall Rothstein reaches that age on December 25, 2015.

For years, conservatives have wanted to rein in the Supreme Court of Canada, which has issued numerous decisions over the years that have enraged right wingers.

Those rulings include striking down Canada's abortion law, "reading in" sexual orientation to the list of equality rights guaranteed under Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and requiring that the Crown provide full disclosure to the defence in criminal cases.

In 2000, University of Calgary professors Ted Morton (later Alberta's finance minister) and Rainer Knopff wrote a book called The Charter Revolution & The Court Party, which alleged that "university-based intellectuals" had embarked on an "astoundingly successful strategy" to promote an activist, rights-based agenda through the courts.

In their book, they took special aim at the Canadian Civil Liberties Association, the Women's Legal Education and Action Fund, and the LGBT advocacy group Egale Canada for the role they played in advancing legal rights for minorities and women.

"Gay advocates (and postmodernists generally) view law as an important formative pedagogical force," Morton and Knopff wrote. "Just as the traditional family has been constructed by the law, so changing the law can deconstruct it."

Morton and Knopff, along with future prime minister Stephen Harper, were among six Albertans who signed a famous "firewall letter" in 2001 to then-premier Ralph Klein. The letter called on Alberta to withdraw from the Canada Pension Plan, create a provincial police force, and assert full provincial control over health care.

Meanwhile in late 2006, the national vice president of REAL Women of Canada, a right-wing women's group, told the Georgia Straight that her organization was considering joining other groups in a constitutional challenge to curtail the powers of the federal government.

At the time, Gwendolyn Landolt declined to identify which organizations were working together on this issue.

She specifically objected to the federal government funding women's shelters, daycare, and cultural activities, which she claimed were exclusively provincial domains under the British North America Act.

If such a challenge is ever filed, it will take years to wind its way through the courts.

It's likely that whoever is appointed to serve on the Supreme Court of Canada in the next four years would render a verdict in a case like that.

If Harper were to win a majority government on May 2 and later stack the court with judges who share the views of right wingers such as Morton, Knopff, and Landolt, this could have profound ramifications on the future of Canada.

Monday, March 28, 2011

Canadian soldier killed in Afghanistan now 155 Sunday.

The death toll among Canadian soldiers serving in Afghanistan rose to 155 Sunday when 24-year-old Corporal Yannick Scherrer of Montreal was killed by a roadside bomb.

Cpl. Scherrer was on foot patrol near Nakhonay, southwest of Kandahar City, when he died.

He was a member of the 1st Battalion, Royal 22nd Regiment, based in CFB Valcartier in Quebec.

It was his first tour of duty in Afghanistan, an uncle of the slain soldier confirmed in a brief telephone Interview. The uncle declined to elaborate, saying any further information should come from Cpl. Scherrer's father, who was not immediately available.

Cpl. Scherrer was the first Canadian to die in Afghanistan since Dec. 18, when Cpl. Steve Martin was killed, also felled by an IED.

Cpl. Sherrer was on a security patrol with the Afghan National Army when he was killed Sunday.

In a statement issued in Kandahar Monday, Brigadier-General Dean Milner, Canada's top soldier in Afghanistan, expressed condolences on behalf of the military, adding that “Canadians can be proud of the progress our soldiers have accomplished for the people of Kandahar province.”

Prime Minister Stephen Harper also voiced sympathy for the corporal's relatives and friends.

Nakhonay, a war-battered village of about 1,000 people, has been a hot spot in counterinsurgency efforts. At least five of the 17 Canadians killed in the past year in Afghanistan died in Nakhonay, and many others have been injured there.

Canada's 2,800 troops stationed in Kandahar will end combat operations by the end of July, but up to 950 troops and support staff will remain in Afghanistan on the training mission until 2014.

Since the Canadian mission in Afghanistan began in 2002, the great majority of deaths have resulted from what are termed improvised explosive devices, which commonly take the form of bombs concealed beneath the surface of roads or hidden by other means.

Four Canadian civilians have also been killed: a diplomat, a reporter and two aid workers.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

Green Party leader Elizabeth May kicks off her national election campaign

Elizabeth May will seek seat in B.C. riding of Saanich-Gulf Islands

Green Party leader Elizabeth May kicks off her national election campaign bright and early as the sun rose at Sea Cider Farm and Ciderhouse in near Victoria, British Columbia.

SAANICH, BRITISH COLUMBIA—The Green Party’s Elizabeth May, the only party leader without a seat in the House of Commons, said she would focus her campaign on once again trying to become the country’s first elected Green Member of Parliament.

In the Greens campaign launch in the pastoral setting of a cider house winery at sunrise, May set out a two-pronged message that her party could change the negativity coming out of Ottawa and that voters on B.C.’s west coast could make history by voting her into a federal seat.

“Across Canada, Canadians look at Parliament and think we’ve had enough, we have enough of attack ads,” said May to a crowd of about 250 supporters who arrived before dawn. “We cannot stand by and allow our democracy to be abused.”

Residents who choose not to vote because of the negative ads are only rewarding the people whose cynical tactics have been devised to keep voters at home, said May, encouraging voters, especially young voters, to vote for the Green Party.

May, who lives in the riding of Saanich-Gulf Islands after moving to the west coast in 2009, had unsuccessfully run for a seat in the 2008 election when she faced off against Defence Minister Peter MacKay, in a Nova Scotia riding and in an earlier by-election in London, Ontario in 2006.

In this campaign, she is trying to unseat Conservative Gary Lunn, the current Minister of State for Sport who first won his seat in 1997.

Hampered by less funding than the Conservatives, the Bloc, the Liberals and the NDP, May said the Green Party will run a campaign using social media tools. She will do whistle-stops by rail for some cross-country campaigning but will spend most of her time in the riding, a vast area where some parts are reachable only by float plane or by ferry.

May will have a tough fight for a seat in the diverse Saanich-Gulf Islands riding which is located on Vancouver Island and on islands located between Vancouver and Victoria. Lunn won handily with 43 per cent of the vote in 2008.

“We are in one of the greenest ridings in the country,” said riding resident and Green Party supporter David Haughton who showed up at the campaign launch. “I think most Canadians would like to see a Green Party MP and we can do that here in this riding by sending Elizabeth to Parliament.”

In 2008, nearly 1 million Canadians voted for the Green Party, slightly less than 7 per cent of the popular support.

The Green candidate in 2008 won about 10 per cent of the vote in the riding with much of the environmentalist vote cast for a well-known Liberal candidate who took 39 per cent of the vote.

While the Gulf Islands may be territory where May could grab votes away from Lunn, the mainland seaside community of Sidney in the riding remains staunchly Conservative, according to a campaign worker for Lunn.

The volunteer, who asked not to be identified, showed polling numbers to the Toronto Star indicating that the riding’s heavily populated areas on the mainland of Vancouver Island will vote Conservative.

“This remains an area with many retirees who moved out here from Alberta. They are going to stick with the Conservatives,” said the Conservative volunteer.

May is counting on voter cynicism to make inroads into the riding and promises that the Green Party will not use negative ads to divide Canadians. The party is launching what May calls a space for other parties to agree on the things they have in common.

“Let’s replace fear and mistrust and cynicism with hope and compassion,” said May. “Let’s replace self-interest with the common interest of service for the common good.”

May said there are things in common that all the parties can agree to and she thanked Prime Minister Stephen Harper for calling an election on May 2, a strategic date for her which has already become part of her slogan.

“He has given me a gift,” said the Green Party leader. “In May, vote May.”

Saturday, March 26, 2011

another minority: EKOS.

The Liberal Party that pushed the government to defeat Friday trails the Conservatives by seven points as it heads into an election, according to a new EKOS poll.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper said after the non-confidence vote he would meet with the Governor General on Saturday, setting in motion a campaign that would end at the polls in May.

The final survey by the polling company before the election call suggests the Conservatives have the support of 35.3 per cent of voters and the Liberals 28.1 per cent. The poll suggests the NDP have 14.2 per cent support, the Green Party 10.6 per cent and the Bloc Quebecois 9.7 per cent.

Voters were asked to indicate what party they would vote for if an election were held the day after they were surveyed.

The party standings in the survey are similar to what they were the last time Canadians went to the ballot box in 2008, according to a report accompanying the poll results.

"While the Liberals and Greens are poised to make some minor gains at the expense of the Conservatives and the NDP, there is little chance that we will see any major changes in the balance of power," the EKOS analysis said. "At these numbers, the Conservatives will retain their status as a minority government and it is doubtful that the Liberals will gain enough seats to form a legitimate coalition with the NDP, let alone the government."

The survey of 2,503 people was conducted between March 17 and March 24 and has a margin of error of plus or minus two percentage points, 19 times out of 20.

Compared to an EKOS survey done the week before, the new poll has the Conservatives up slightly from 34.1 per cent support.

Between March 10 and March 16, the Liberals captured 25.7 per cent support, and the NDP's support dipped from 16.4 per cent. The EKOS poll suggests the Liberals are stronger than the Conservatives among younger voters, while the Conservatives are ahead of the Liberals with seniors.

"These age differences do not bode well for the Liberal Party in terms of voter efficiency, as younger voters are consistently less likely to vote," according to the firm's analysis.

Close to 42 per cent of respondents said the Conservative government was going in the right direction, while almost 48 per cent said they were headed in the wrong direction.

The analysis said the Conservatives have their support base locked in and have little room to grow.

When asked which party they would choose as their second choice, 20.4 per cent of respondents said the NDP and 15 per cent said the Liberals. The Conservatives are the second choice of 9.4 per cent of those surveyed.

Friday, March 25, 2011

Fewer Canadians trust the Conservative government than they did a year ago, according to a new Nanos Research public opinion poll.

Fewer Canadians trust the Conservative government than they did a year ago, according to a new public opinion poll.

A survey conducted by Nanos Research for CTV and The Globe and Mail found that 41 per cent of people said they trusted Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government less than they did one year ago.

Nearly half, 49 per cent, trusted it about the same amount, and six per cent said they had more trust for the Tories. Another four per cent were unsure.

Even among the Conservative voters contacted by the pollsters, more than a quarter (26.2 per cent) said they had less trust for the government.

"Even among core Conservative supporters, there's been an erosion of trust," Nik Nanos told CTV News Thursday night.

Trust in the government fell most sharply in Quebec, where 49.3 per cent of respondents said they trusted it less, and in Atlantic Canada, at 47.9 per cent.

With an election call widely expected within days, the poll also asked people whether it was more important to respondents to have a government working to manage the economy, or one with a good record of accountability and transparency.

Respondents to the survey were evenly split on the two priorities, with 48 per cent preferring accountability and 47 per cent leaning towards good economic management.

"It looks like one of those two issues is going to be the ballot box question," said Nanos.

"Depending on how these numbers play out, this could be a leading indicator as to who will have the upper hand. If it's about jobs, the Conservatives will have the upper hand. If it's about ethics and accountability, then the opposition parties will be able to take a run at the government."

Only five per cent of those surveyed were unsure which government priority they preferred.

Support for a government focusing on the economy was highest in Quebec (52.4 per cent) and transparency was most popular in the Prairie provinces (56.1 per cent).

The Nanos researchers contacted 1,216 randomly selected adults across the country by telephone, between March 12 and March 15.

The poll is considered accurate within 2.8 percentage points, 19 times out of 20.

The Conservatives have presented themselves as the top stewards of Canada's economy, ahead of Tuesday's budget and a potential election trigger expected Friday, as MPs respond to a report that found the government in contempt.

The Opposition parties have concentrated their attacks on the government over its spending and ethics.

A Nanos poll released last week found that 30 per cent of Canadians saw the Conservatives as the most trusted in terms of economic policy. Only 21 per cent chose the Liberals, and 16 per cent the NDP.

But 25 per cent of those surveyed were unsure or would not answer that question.

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Bruce Carson ex-adviser to Canada PMO has chequered past!.

Bruce Carson went bankrupt, with thousands of dollars of debt, before becoming one of Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s closest advisers.

Documents obtained by The Canadian Press show Mr. Carson declared bankruptcy in 1993, then was hounded by creditors again in 2002 – shortly before going to work as then-opposition leader Harper’s director of policy and research.

He declared a debt of $103,359 in the 1990s, and $369,000 nine years ago, the records show. No further information is given in the bankruptcy documents.

Mr. Carson – who is being investigated by the RCMP over allegations of illegal lobbying – said his 2002 money woes ended as a “commercial proposal,” which lets a person or business pay back creditors, generally over an extended period.

“The second was not a bankruptcy but a proposal to creditors which I made and it was accepted,” he said in an e-mail Wednesday. He would not comment further.

The Prime Minister’s Office also declined comment.

Mr. Carson has a chequered past. He was disbarred by the Law Society of Upper Canada in 1981, and served time in jail after pleading guilty to two counts of defrauding clients.

Minutes from a July 16, 1981, meeting of the society's discipline committee shed light on why Carson was disbarred.

“He had forged the signature of the president of a corporation and misappropriated over $15,000 belonging to the corporation for which he acted,” the document says.

“[He] forged the signature of a client from whom he misappropriated over $4,000; and misappropriated $4,900 belonging to another client.”

Mr. Carson reinvented himself as a constitutional expert and became a political insider, working under Progressive Conservative prime ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney, as well as Ontario Premier Mike Harris, before going to work for Harper when he became leader of the opposition.

Mr. Carson remained with Harper after the Conservatives won the 2006 election. Around political Ottawa, he was known as “the Mechanic” for his ability to fix tricky situations.

Senate Majority Leader Marjory LeBreton underscored Mr. Carson's worth to Mr. Harper's office during a November, 2006 Senate debate, calling him “a valued employee of the Prime Minister's Office.”

Mr. Carson left the PMO in 2008 to head the Canada School of Energy and Environment, in Calgary.

He later accompanied then-environment minister Jim Prentice to an April, 2009 meeting with the U.S. energy secretary, and he was part of Canadian government's delegation at the Copenhagen climate summit that year.

But the 65-year-old Carson apparently yearned for his old life. Those who know him say he lobbied cabinet ministers last summer to use their influence with the prime minister to get him appointed as Harper's chief of staff. That job ultimately went to Bay Street executive Nigel Wright.

Mr. Carson worked at the Calgary-based think-tank until he took a leave of absence from the job last week.

That abrupt departure came after an investigation by the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network said Carson was allegedly lobbying Indian Affairs and the minister's office on behalf of an Ottawa-based water company that employed his girlfriend.

Michele McPherson, 22, stood to benefit from a plan to sell water-filtration systems to reserves with water-quality problems, APTN reported.

According to the network, McPherson signed a contract last Aug. 31 that would entitle her to 20 per cent of the project's gross sales in a venture Mr. Carson was pushing.

The company, H20 Global Group, released a statement Wednesday saying Mr. Carson never did any lobbying for the company.

“Mr. Bruce Carson has never lobbied for the company and has simply provided advice to assist us in understanding the process.”

The company added it cancelled McPherson's 20-per-cent contract last month.

Mr. Carson has said little since the first APTN story aired.

Businessman Patrick Hill incorporated a business called H20 Water Professionals on July 14. McPherson joined the company last year. On Oct. 22, the company formed another entity called H2O Global Group to deal with Indian Affairs on the First Nations water project.

Property records show Mr. Carson and Ms. McPherson paid $389,500 in December for a house in Mountain, Ont., about an hour's drive south of Ottawa. APTN also reported that Ms. McPherson drives a black Mercedes SUV that Mr. Carson purchased.

The Prime Minister's Office has called in the RCMP over the allegations in the APTN reports. The matter was also referred to the office of the conflict of interest and ethics commissioner and the commissioner of lobbying.

A spokesman for Environment Minister Peter Kent said Mr. Carson broached the topic of water issues in First Nations communities when he met the minister last month.

But the spokesman added Mr. Carson wasn't lobbying the minister on any company's behalf.

Before that, Mr. Carson met senior political staff in the office of Indian Affairs Minister John Duncan on Jan. 11 of this year to discuss a First Nations water filtration project and H20 Professionals, officials in Mr. Duncan's office said.

Mr. Duncan's office said the January meeting involved Kym Purchase, the minister's director of policy, and Ted Yeomans, his director of parliamentary affairs.

Mr. Yeomans is a former assistant to MP Pierre Poilievre, Harper's parliamentary secretary.

“Mr. Carson briefed the staff on the proposed water project,” Michelle Yao, Mr. Duncan's director of communications, said in an e-mail. “Staff provided publicly available information to Bruce Carson and recommended he work directly with First Nations.”

Ms. Yao described the meeting as standard practice. “Minister's staff regularly attend meetings with individuals and stakeholders,” she said.

Mr. Carson also met Indian Affairs officials four times between September and December, 2010. The department says it has not awarded any contracts to H20 Global Group, the company Ms. McPherson worked for.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

University of Alberta Edmonton students go Google

make the switch and “Go Google” today as the university begins to utilize the Google Apps for Education suite.

“This is a huge project that we need to roll out in a staged fashion. Step one is get all the students switched over correctly,” said Jonathan Schaeffer, the university’s vice provost (information technology). “Students are Internet savvy; they’re leading edge. In many ways, today's students are driving change.”

More than 38,000 students—graduate and undergraduate—are the first to have the new suite available to them.

The U of A announced in December 2010 that it came to an agreement with Google to provide the university’s faculty, staff and students the use of the free education edition of Google Apps. The agreement means the university community will begin using Google mail, calendaring, document preparation and other tools.

“Most students are already living and working in a mobile, web-enabled world,” added Schaeffer. “Nearly all carry a cell phone and within the next five years almost all will carry a smart phone.”

Those students will benefit from the switch, said Joshua LaForge, a fourth-year PhD student in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, who was part of the Google project’s beta testing group.

“I think if you're a student who mainly uses the webmail interface or is doing a lot of communication from a mobile device, there's a huge benefit to this new system,” he said. “The web interface for Gmail is just one of the best ones out there right now.”

And Gmail allows for larger file attachments (25 megbytes) and more storage space (7.5 gigabytes) than the U of A’s current webmail client, said LaForge. For those who just want their email to be email, the switch to Google shouldn’t cause too many ripples, he added.

“Functionally, the transition was really easy—seamless. Just point Outlook, or whatever you're using for email, at the new service and it just goes. You're probably not going to notice much of a change.”

But, in the testing phase, many of those who were resistant to change ended up embracing it, said Simon Collier, one of the project leads.

“We found a lot of people who had initially planned to stay with their original email client ended up switching over to the web client after a while, because then it's a consistent experience no matter where you are,” he said.

The U of A project team ran the project using the communication and collaboration tools in the Google Apps suite, to put the utilities to the test, said Collier. The team found that the Google video chat allowed for impromptu meetings that included team members at different U of A campuses, and even occasionally, different time zones. And Google Docs—the online documents and spreadsheets application—slashed the time needed for larger groups when editing documents.

“Instead of creating a document and passing it around—people making their edits and sending different versions of the document back to the first person—it can all happen at once. What might have taken us days is happening overnight,” he said. “It doesn't matter where you are, and it doesn't matter what time it is. That's transformed the way we do work.”

“This improves the email service for everyone at the U of A,” said Schaeffer. “The move to Google Apps for Education and uAlberta Gmail offer tools for collaboration and communication that the university community will embrace and benefit from.

“We are aiming to be transformational, not just transitional, as we roll out new tools and technologies,” said Schaeffer.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Canadians see health care, ahead of the economy, as the top issue facing the country

A growing number of Canadians see health care, ahead of the economy, as the top issue facing the country, according to a new poll.

The Nanos Research poll, conducted for CTV and the Globe and Mail, comes on the eve of a federal budget that is expected to focus on job creation and Canada's economic recovery.

It found that nearly 30 per cent of respondents, when unprompted, said health care was the top priority (percentage-point change from last month in brackets):

Health care: 29.2 per cent (+6.3)

Jobs / Economy: 18.1 per cent (-2.1)

Education: 8.8 per cent (+3.5)

Environment: 7.5 per cent (-2.8)

Debt: 3.8 per cent (-1.4)

Unsure: 9.1 per cent (-3.3)

Last April, with Canada still staggering from a worldwide recession, more than half of all Canadians felt the economy was the top issue.

Health care, by contrast, fell below 15 per cent.

The Conservatives have presented themselves as the top stewards of Canada's economy, ahead of Tuesday's budget and a potential election trigger expected Friday, as MPs respond to a report that found the government in contempt.

Health care has seemingly fallen to the wayside as a major political issue, as opposition parties attack the government on spending and ethics.

"The opposition wants an election in order to raise taxes and kill jobs," Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said during question period Monday.

"While they're focused on opportunism and partisanship, we're focused on bringing forward the next phase of Canada's Economic Action Plan and creating jobs and growth."

Last week, Liberal Leader Michael Ignatieff criticized Prime Minister Stephen Harper for promising more than $1 billion in new spending, while Harper had earlier slammed Ignatieff for saying a Liberal government would fund arenas.

Fighter jets not popular

The Nanos Poll suggests Canadians may be wary of major spending if it's not linked to economic recovery. The survey asked respondents whether now was a good time for Ottawa to spend as much as $30 billion on 65 new F-35 fighter jets.

The vast majority said now was not a good time because Canada is running a deficit:

Now is not a good time: 68 per cent

Purchase now for the future: 27 per cent

Unsure: 5 per cent

The purchase has become a heated issue on Parliament Hill. The Conservatives say it's a necessary investment for the future of Canada's military. Officials estimate the cost of each jet will be around $75 million.

However, recent U.S. reports put the cost much higher, estimating it could cost about $90 million per jet.

According to the survey, 30 per cent of Canadians see Conservatives as most trusted in terms of economic policy, while 21 per cent chose the Liberals, and 16 per cent the NDP. Unsure/no answer got a whopping 25 per cent on this question.


The survey involved 1,216 Canadians 18 years of age and older

It was conducted between March 12 and 15

Results are accurate to within 2.8 percentage points, 19 times out of 20

Monday, March 21, 2011

Stephen Harper has reason to worry.!

A new poll suggests Stephen Harper has reason to worry as Parliament returns amid such tumult that the government could fall within days, forcing a spring election.

Trust in the Prime Minister’s leadership has waned over the past month, amid charges that the Conservative government is in contempt of Parliament for hiding information; after party officials were charged with breaking the election law in 2006; and now with allegations emerging that Bruce Carson, a former confident of Mr. Harper, sought to win contracts that benefited him and his much, much younger girlfriend.

A poll conducted by Nanos Research for The Globe and Mail and CTV reveals a sharp drop in the past month in Mr. Harper’s leadership index score – a compendium measuring Canadians’ attitudes toward the trustworthiness, competence and vision of political leaders.

That score declined from 99 in February to its current level of 83, eliminating the gains in popularity that the Conservatives had purchased through a saturation campaign of negative advertising.

For pollster Nik Nanos, this is proof of the risk that attends fashioning an election campaign built solely around the party leader.

“It makes it much more difficult to compartmentalize matters when there’s a controversy,” he said Sunday. Just as Mr. Harper’s leadership may be the biggest advantage the Conservatives have going into an election campaign, so too it may be their greatest weakness.

If the mud is starting to stick, this could be a bad week for the Conservatives. As Parliament resumes, expect Mr. Carson’s name to dominate Question Period. How, if at all, did he profit from his past connections to the Prime Minister?

There will also be two parliamentary committee reports finding the government, in one case, and Minister of International Co-operation Bev Oda, in another, in contempt for Parliament for obstructing the work of parliamentary committees.

And there’s the matter of the budget, with its corporate tax cuts that offend the opposition parties. Any of all of this could bring down the government.

On the other side, the House of Commons is expected Monday to debate the government’s decision to deploy six CF-18 fighter jets to the Mediterranean, to assist the efforts to contain Libyan strongman Moammar Gadhafi.

Not only does this remind Canadians that parliamentary shenanigans are petty tempests in a time of uprisings and earthquakes, the deployment also allows Mr. Harper to act statesmanlike, while buttressing his controversial decision to replace the CF-18s with costly new F-35 fighters.

Unfortunately for the Liberals, Mr. Harper’s declining leadership index score is not mirrored in gains for Michael Ignatieff, whose score inched up from 37 to 40. The real winner was NDP Leader Jack Layton, whose score leapt from 44 to 51.

That improvement was also reflected in increased support for the NDP in the West. Nationally, the popularity of the Conservative Party declined by a single percentage point, to 39 per cent, with both the Liberals (28 per cent) and NDP (20 per cent) up one point from the month before. These numbers are well within the margin of error (3 per cent) and suggest little or no change in support for the three national parties.

But in Western Canada, though the much larger margin of error warrants caution, the Conservatives are noticeably down and the NDP noticeably up.

While that means little in the Prairies, where support for the Conservatives declined from the astronomical to the merely stratospheric, the numbers in British Columbia, a crucial battleground, should give the Conservatives pause.

There, support for the Conservatives dropped from 45 per cent to 38 per cent, while support for the NDP shot up from 21 per cent to 30 per cent. The Liberal vote remained largely unchanged, at 24 per cent.

The question during the spring election campaign, if it does come, is whether the grime currently clinging to Mr. Harper from recent weeks will continue to undermine his popularity, or whether he can regain his leadership momentum, and a shot at a majority government.

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Government information now available for free in Canada

The federal government launched a new open data portal Thursday, making more than a quarter million sets of data available for free.

"Raw information and data that departments accumulate in huge amounts is now going to be available in an accessible manner," Treasury Board President Stockwell Day announced at a news conference in Vancouver.

The site, available now at, is a one-year pilot making more than 260,000 data sets available from 10 participating government departments. Over time, all departments will be expected to participate, said Day.

Day said the site will assist academics with research and allow companies to create things like smartphone apps that make government data more accessible to the public.

"Government data can be repurposed for any number of uses depending on, really, the imagination of people who want to access it," Day said.

Some of the information already available on the site includes immigration processing times, greenhouse gas emissions and a list of soldiers from the First World War.

David Eaves, an open-data advocate from Vancouver who worked with Ottawa on launching the site, said at Thursday's news conference that it was an "important first step" in making government information more accessible.

However, in an interview later, he said he had serious concerns about the legal licence that governs how people can use the data -a licence he said he hadn't seen until this week.

That licence prohibits using the data "in any way which, in the opinion of Canada, may bring disrepute to or prejudice the reputation of Canada," or identifies an individual, organization or business.

Eaves said both restrictions are "unprecedented" and unlike anything he's even seen on a government open data site.

As written, said Eaves, the licence would seem to forbid public-interest uses of government data such as identifying heavy polluters or companies that routinely violate product-safety regulations.

And the ban on bringing disrepute to Canada could discourage use of the data by journalists and others in ways that criticize the government.

"From a business perspective, and from an accountability and journalistic perspective, those terms are a major impediment," said Eaves.

Asked at the news conference about the restrictions, Day said they were added on the advice of government lawyers to reduce legal liability, and in his view didn't prevent criticism of the government.

"If someone wants to use that data to show that something can be done in a better way, that's absolutely the type of thing we want to see," he said.

Day's spokesman Jay Denney later said in an interview it was never the government's intention to limit freedom of expression and that the section on "disrepute" would be removed from the open-data licence.

Denney couldn't say whether the section on identifying businesses would also be changed.

The U.S. and British governments have had open data portals for several years and the City of Vancouver launched its open data site last year.

The B.C. government still doesn't have one. Premier Christy Clark promised during her leadership campaign to create such a portal.

However, in an interview, the new B.C. minister for open government, Stephanie Cadieux, said while her ministry is working as quickly as possible, she couldn't provide "an actual date or timeline" for when B.C.'s site would launch.

Vincent Gogolek, executive director of the B.C. Freedom of Information and Privacy Association, said while the federal open data site is welcome, it does nothing to address the Conservative government's long record of frustrating Access to Information requests.

At Thursday's news conference, Day was asked about reports that the government is considering increasing the fee charged for Access to Information requests from $5 to $10.

He said the government had "absolutely no plans" to increase the fee

Read more:

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Health care a skeleton for Tories.

You have to wonder if Liberal Leader David Swann and Premier Ed Stelmach are having regrets about their decisions to retire this year — Swann because he’s leaving too early and Stelmach because he’s leaving too late.

For Swann, things are coming together; for Stelmach, things seem to be falling apart.

And it’s all because of two issues dear to Swann: problems in health care and allegations of government intimidation.

It was Swann’s first-hand experience with government intimidation that propelled him into politics after he was fired as medical officer of health of the Palliser Health Authority in southern Alberta in 2002. Swann’s crime? Speaking up for the Kyoto accord to reduce greenhouse gases.

If intimidation ignited his political career, it was his experience as a physician in the health-care system that provided the fuel — and convinced Liberal members that having a physician as leader would boost the party’s credibility with the public.

It didn’t work out that way. Swann never really clicked with the public, according to opinion polls. He faced dissent within his own caucus and was largely overlooked by the media — leading him to throw in the towel and announce he’s stepping down as leader after the spring sitting, just days after Stelmach announced his retirement (that won’t actually take place until September).

But Swann must be feeling like an investor who has sold all of his stocks right before the market bounces back.

Suddenly, the government is under relentless attack over problems in the health-care system. Doctors are coming forward with tales of intimidation after they advocated for better patient care. The opposition parties held a joint news conference last week — with Swann as lead speaker — to call for a public inquiry into intimidation and untimely deaths in the health-care system.

To top it off, the Alberta Medical Association bolstered Swann’s position by using the I-word — intimidate — in a letter to members about the current round of contract talks with doctors: “For the first time ever, government threatened the loss of programs and services to try and intimidate physicians,” said AMA president Patrick White, deliberately choosing to use the most loaded word in Alberta politics.

Given that doctors were in contract negotiations when White wrote the letter, there’s a hint of gamesmanship here. But there’s also more than a whiff of genuine anger at the government.

A few days later, White called for “an open and full review” of complaints about intimidation of doctors who stand up for patients in the face of administrative and political punishment.

One saving grace for the government was that White used the word “review” and not “inquiry.”

This has become the big debating point in Alberta politics — one that keeps reporters and politicians awake at night and one that puts everyone else to sleep.

The government has ordered the arm’s-length Health Quality Council of Alberta to conduct a review. It will be closed door and will look into complaints of 321 examples of “compromised care” in 2008 and it will determine whether the quality of care for 250 cancer patients was compromised from 2003 to 2006. It will not, according to the terms of reference announced this week, look into Independent MLA Raj Sherman’s more explosive allegation of a double set of accounting books set up to hide hush money paid to doctors over the untimely deaths of patients on waiting lists for surgery.

On the other hand, a judicial inquiry, as demanded by the opposition parties, would be public — with the power to compel witnesses to testify — and would presumably be able to look into everything.

It is the difference between a forensic audit and a public trial.

Importantly, the goal of the health council’s review is “not to lay blame on any one individual or organization, but to look at system-wide issues and opportunities for improvement.”

The opposition parties, on the other hand, want to lay blame. They want a great big finger wagging at the government. They no doubt want to improve the system, but they also want to embarrass Conservatives, whether that’s the minister of health today or the minister of health from 2003 — namely, Gary Mar, who’s now running for the Conservative leadership.

They know they’d have a much better chance of doing that with a public inquiry than a closed-door review.

What we should keep in mind here is that complaints of intimidation are not new. Doctors were complaining about bullying and muzzling 15 years ago. Dr. Anne Fanning, for example, who has been in the news recently talking about government intimidation, was a cause celebre in 1997 after being dismissed as the head of Alberta’s tuberculosis control program.

“I was opposed to health-care cuts,” Fanning told reporters at the time. “That is why I’ve lost my job.”

So, today’s angst can be traced back to the health care cuts made by Stelmach’s predecessor, Ralph Klein.

It is one of the Klein skeletons that has come back to haunt the Conservatives.

A closed-door review will help rebury the body — or at least keep it in a shallow grave until after Stelmach is safely retired in September.

But the opposition will be doing its best to reanimate the corpse to plague the new Conservative leader in time for the next election.

Read more:

Friday, March 18, 2011

An American woman is banned from entering Canada for two years for planting a pie in the face of the federal fisheries minister to protest the seal hunt.

An American woman is banned from entering Canada for two years for planting a pie in the face of the federal fisheries minister to protest the seal hunt.

A judge in Milton today convicted Emily McCoy of assault for shoving a tofu cream pie in Gail Shea’s face at an event in Burlington in January.

Lawyer James Silver says the judge placed the New York City woman on probation for two years with some strict conditions.

Silver says McCoy is banned from returning to Canada or having any contact with Shea or the fisheries ministry during her probation.

Silver says the conditions also prohibit McCoy from contact with any Canadian institutions such as embassies or consulates.

McCoy told the court prior to sentencing that she hadn’t properly considered the consequences of her actions.

“I never considered the extent of the consequences of my actions in protesting the violent seal slaughter,” McCoy said in her statement.

“I assaulted an elected government official,” she said.

The Crown agreed to the probationary sentence, but Silver said prosecutors made it clear they would have sought jail time except for extenuating circumstances in McCoy’s case.

“When she was motivated to go in and try and bring attention to this cause that she believes in so deeply, her motivations were well intentioned,” Silver said.

“The means of implementing those motivations were not only inappropriate, but illegal,” he said.

The court also considered that McCoy doesn’t fit the usual criminal demographics, Silver said.

What brought her before the court was a “misguided attempt” to bring attention to the seal hunt, he said.

“She recognizes now that this is over the line,” Silver added.

Silver said while the sentence may appear to be a slap in the wrist, it does have far-reaching implications for his client.

Apart from the criminal record, he said it also bars McCoy from continuing her protest of the seal hunt, even in a peaceful way because of the ban on communication with Canadian officials.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Ontario Power Generation has notified Canada's federal nuclear regulator about the release of 73,000 litres of demineralized water into Lake Ontario at the Pickering A nuclear generating station.

Ontario Power Generation has notified Canada's federal nuclear regulator about the release of 73,000 litres of demineralized water into Lake Ontario at the Pickering A nuclear generating station.

The leak occurred at 11:30 p.m. ET on Monday at the plant located about 35 kilometres east of Toronto and was caused by a pump seal failure.

“The radiological risk to the environment and people's health is negligible,” the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission said in a statement.

The nuclear regulator and Environment Canada are monitoring the situation, the statement said.

Andrew Nichols of CBC News reported about the leak on Wednesday afternoon and said he spoke to an Ontario Power Generation spokesperson who told him the risk is minimal but that such leaks are not supposed to occur.

Nichols also spoke to Gordon Edwards of the Canadian Coalition of Nuclear Responsibility.

"In his words, 'What the hell is considered negligible?'" Nichols reported. "[Edwards] is concerned that it’s the nuclear industry that is telling you and I and telling the public what is considered to be negligible but he’s concerned that we don’t have a proper sense of what negligible is," reported Nichols.

Nichols also reported that the leak could be a concern because Lake Ontario is the main source of drinking water for millions of people who live along the lake.

The leak comes as the world is watching Japan's unfolding nuclear crisis, as multiple reactors face cooling system failures and possible meltdowns in the wake of Friday's earthquake and tsunami.

Pickering A is the first of four reactors at the nuclear plant just east of Toronto. It went into service in 1971 and continued to operate safely until 1997, when it was placed in voluntary lay-up as part of what was then Ontario Hydro's nuclear improvement program.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

CANDU reactor data!


Qinshan Phase III Units 1 & 2, located in Zhejiang China (30.436 N 120.958 E): Two CANDU 6 reactors, designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), owned and operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Limited. Photo courtesy of AECL.The CANDU ("CANada Deuterium Uranium") reactor is a Canadian-invented, pressurized heavy water reactor. The reactors are used in nuclear power plants to produce nuclear power from nuclear fuel. CANDU reactors were developed initially in the late 1950s and 1960s through a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario (now Ontario Power Generation), Canadian General Electric (now GE Canada), and other private industry participants.

The acronym "CANDU", a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for "CANada Deuterium Uranium". This is a reference to its deuterium-oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of uranium fuel (originally, natural uranium). All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada markets this power reactor abroad. In December 2009, the Canadian Federal Government announced that they would be seeking private investors for a partial sell-off of its CANDU division. [1]

Contents [hide]

1 Design features

2 Purpose of using heavy water

3 Fuel cycles

4 Safety

5 Chronology

6 Economics

7 Nuclear nonproliferation

8 Active CANDU reactors

9 New plants

9.1 Enhanced CANDU 6

9.2 Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000)

10 Tritium emissions

11 See also

12 References

13 External links

Design features

Schematic Diagram of a CANDU reactor: The primary loop is in yellow and orange, the secondary in blue and red. The cool heavy water in the calandria can be seen in pink, along with partially inserted shutoff rods. Key 1 Fuel bundle 8 Fueling machines

2 Calandria (reactor core) 9 Heavy water moderator

3 Adjuster rods 10 Pressure tube

4 Heavy water pressure reservoir 11 Steam going to steam turbine

5 Steam generator 12 Cold water returning from turbine

6 Light water pump 13 Containment building made of reinforced concrete

7 Heavy water pump

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Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)

The CANDU reactor is conceptually similar to most light water reactors, although it differs in the details.

Like other water moderated reactors, fission reactions in the reactor core heat pressurized water in a primary cooling loop. A heat exchanger transfers the heat to a secondary cooling loop, which powers a steam turbine with an electrical generator attached to it. Any excess heat energy in the steam after flowing through the turbine is rejected into the environment in a variety of ways, most typically into a large body of cool water, such as a lake, river or ocean. Heat can also be disposed of using a cooling tower, but they are avoided whenever possible because they reduce the plant's efficiency. More recently built CANDU plants, such as the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station near Toronto, Ontario, use a discharge-diffuser system that limits the thermal effects in the environment to within natural variations.

The main difference between CANDUs and other water moderated reactors is that CANDUs use heavy water for neutron moderation. The heavy water surrounds the fuel assemblies and primary coolant. The heavy water is unpressurized, and a cooling system is required to keep it from boiling.

At the time of its design, Canada lacked the heavy industry to cast and machine the large, heavy steel pressure vessel used in most light water reactors.[citation needed] Instead, the pressure is contained in much smaller tubes, 10 cm diameter, that contain the fuel bundles. These smaller tubes are easier to fabricate than a large pressure vessel. In order to allow the neutrons to flow freely between the bundles, the tubes are made of a zirconium alloy (zirconium + 2.5% wt niobium), which is highly transparent to neutrons. The zircaloy tubes are surrounded by a much larger low-pressure tank known as a calandria, which contains the majority of the moderator.

Canada also lacked access to uranium enrichment facilities, which were then extremely expensive to construct and operate.[citation needed] The CANDU was therefore designed to use natural uranium as its fuel, like the ZEEP reactor, the first Canadian reactor. Traditional designs using light water as a moderator will absorb too many neutrons to allow a chain reaction to occur in natural uranium due to the low density of active nuclei. Heavy water absorbs fewer neutrons than light water, allowing a high neutron economy that can sustain a chain reaction even in unenriched fuel. Also, the low temperature of the moderator (below the boiling point of water) reduces changes in the neutrons' speeds from collisions with the moving particles of the moderator ("neutron scattering"). The neutrons therefore are easier to keep near the optimum speed to cause fissioning; they have good spectral purity. At the same time, they are still somewhat scattered, giving an efficient range of neutron energies.

The large thermal mass of the moderator provides a significant heat sink that acts as an additional safety feature. If a fuel assembly were to overheat and deform within its fuel channel, the resulting change of geometry permits high heat transfer to the cool moderator, thus preventing the breach of the fuel channel, and the possibility of a meltdown. Furthermore, because of the use of natural uranium as fuel, this reactor cannot sustain a chain reaction if its original fuel channel geometry is altered in any significant manner.

In a traditional light water reactor (LWR) design, the entire reactor core is a single large pressure vessel containing the light water, which acts as moderator and coolant, and the fuel arranged in a series of long bundles running the length of the core. To refuel such a reactor, it must be shut down, the pressure dropped, the lid removed, and a significant fraction of the core inventory, such as one-third, replaced in a batch procedure. The CANDU's calandria-based design allows individual fuel bundles to be removed without taking the reactor off-line, improving overall duty cycle or capacity factor. A pair of remotely controlled fueling machines visit each end of an individual fuel string. One machine inserts new fuel while the other receives discharged fuel.

A lower 235U density also generally implies that less of the fuel will be consumed before the fission rate drops too low to sustain criticality (due primarily to the relative depletion of 235U compared with the build-up of parasitic fission products). However, through increased efficiency which, among other benefits, avoids the need for enriched uranium, CANDU reactors use about 30–40% less mined uranium than light-water reactors per unit of electrical energy produced.

Two CANDU fuel bundles: Each about 50 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter, and generating about 1 GWh of electricity during its time in the reactor. Photo courtesy of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.A CANDU fuel assembly consists of a number of zircaloy tubes containing ceramic pellets of fuel arranged into a cylinder that fits within the fuel channel in the reactor. In older designs the assembly had 28 or 37 half-meter-long fuel tubes with 12 such assemblies lying end to end in a fuel channel. The relatively new CANFLEX bundle has 43 tubes, with two pellet sizes. It is about 10 cm (four inches) in diameter, 0.5 m (20 inches) long and weighs about 20 kg (44 lb) and replaces the 37-tube bundle. It has been designed specifically to increase fuel performance by using two different pellet diameters.

A number of distributed light-water compartments called liquid zone controllers help control the rate of fission. The liquid zone controllers absorb excess neutrons and slow the fission reaction in their regions of the reactor core.

CANDU reactors employ two independent, fast-acting safety shutdown systems. Shutoff rods penetrate the calandria vertically and lower into the core in the case of a safety-system trip. A secondary shutdown system involves injecting high-pressure gadolinium nitrate solution directly into the low-pressure moderator.[2]

Purpose of using heavy water

The CANDU Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is the second largest nuclear power plant in the world.Further information: nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fission, and heavy water

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The key to maintaining a nuclear reaction within a nuclear reactor is to use the neutrons being released during fission to stimulate fission in other nuclei. With careful control over the geometry and reaction rates, this can lead to a self-sustaining chain reaction, a state known as "criticality".

Natural uranium consists of a mixture of various isotopes, primarily 238U and a much smaller amount (about 0.72% by weight) of 235U. 238U can only be fissioned by neutrons that are fairly energetic, about 1 MeV or above. No amount of 238U can be made "critical", however, since it will tend to parasitically absorb more neutrons than it releases by the fission process. In other words, 238U is not fissile. 235U, on the other hand, can support a self-sustained chain reaction, but due to the low natural abundance of 235U, natural uranium cannot achieve criticality by itself.

The "trick" to making a working reactor is to slow some of the neutrons to the point where their probability of causing nuclear fission in 235U increases to a level that permits a sustained chain reaction in the uranium as a whole. This requires the use of a neutron moderator, which absorbs some of the neutrons' kinetic energy, slowing them down to an energy comparable to the thermal energy of the moderator nuclei themselves (leading to the terminology of "thermal neutrons" and "thermal reactors"). During this slowing-down process it is beneficial to physically separate the neutrons from the uranium, since 238U nuclei have an enormous parasitic affinity for neutrons in this intermediate energy range (a reaction known as "resonance" absorption). This is a fundamental reason for designing reactors with discrete solid fuel separated by moderator, rather than employing a more homogeneous mixture of the two materials.

Water makes an excellent moderator. The hydrogen atoms in the water molecules are very close in mass to a single neutron and thus have a potential for high energy transfer, similar conceptually to the collision of two billiard balls. However, in addition to being a good moderator, water is also fairly effective at absorbing neutrons. Using water as a moderator will absorb enough neutrons that there will be too few left over to react with the small amount of 235U in natural uranium, again precluding criticality. So, light water reactors require fuel with an enhanced amount of 235U in the uranium, that is, enriched uranium which generally contains between 3% and 5% 235U by weight (the waste from this process is known as depleted uranium, consisting primarily of 238U). In this enriched form there is enough 235U to react with the water-moderated neutrons to maintain criticality.

One complication of this approach is the requirement to build uranium enrichment facilities which are generally expensive to build and operate. They also present a nuclear proliferation concern since the same systems used to enrich the 235U can also be used to produce much more "pure" weapons-grade material (90% or more 235U), suitable for making a nuclear bomb. Operators could reduce these issues by purchasing ready-made fuel assemblies from the reactor supplier and have the latter reprocess the spent fuel.

An alternative solution to the problem is to use a moderator that does not absorb neutrons as readily as water. In this case potentially all of the neutrons being released can be moderated and used in reactions with the 235U, in which case there is enough 235U in natural uranium to sustain criticality. One such moderator is heavy water, or deuterium-oxide. It reacts dynamically with the neutrons in a similar fashion to light water, albeit with less energy transfer on average given that heavy hydrogen, or deuterium, is about twice the mass of hydrogen. The advantage is that it already has the extra neutron that light water would normally tend to absorb, reducing the absorption rate.

The use of heavy water moderator is the key to the CANDU system, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel (in the form of ceramic UO2), which means that it can be operated without expensive uranium enrichment facilities. Additionally, the mechanical arrangement of the CANDU, which places most of the moderator at lower temperatures, is particularly efficient because the resulting thermal neutrons are "more thermal" than in traditional designs, where the moderator normally runs hot. This means that the CANDU is not only able to "burn" natural uranium and other fuels, but tends to do so more effectively as well.

A further unique feature of heavy-water moderation is the greater stability and better coherence of the chain reaction throughout the whole volume of the reactor. This is due to the relatively low binding energy of the deuterium nucleus (2.2 MeV), leading to some energetic neutrons n,2n and gamma rays (photoneutron effect) inside the reactor breaking deuterium nuclei apart and producing extra neutrons. Since gamma rays and neutrons travel for many tens of centimeters through water, an increased rate of chain reaction in any one part of the reactor will produce a wider, less concentrated response from the rest of the reactor, preventing local overheating and allowing various negative feedbacks to stabilize the reaction. This effect produces a flatter flux distribution throughout the reactor, evening out the power level. Neutrons produced directly by fission have a higher average energy (2 MeV) than the delayed neutrons emitted in the decay of fission fragments (0.5 MeV); therefore the prompt neutrons are much more likely to multiply directly. Both gammas produced directly by fission and those produced by the decay of fission fragments have enough energy for the photoneutron effect, and the half-lives of the fission fragments range from seconds to hours or even years; this increases the proportion of delayed neutrons and slows the reactor response, increasing safety.

Fuel cycles

Range of possible CANDU fuel cycles: CANDU reactors can accept a variety of fuel types, including the used fuel from light-water reactors. Courtesy of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.Compared with light water reactors, a heavy water design is "neutron rich". This makes the CANDU design suitable for "burning" a number of alternative nuclear fuels. To date, the fuel to gain the most attention is mixed oxide fuel (MOX). MOX is a mixture of natural uranium and plutonium, such as that extracted from former nuclear weapons. Currently, there is a worldwide surplus of plutonium due to the various agreements between the United States and the former Soviet Union to dismantle many of their warheads. However, the security of these supplies is a cause for concern. One way to address this security issue is by converting the warhead into fuel and burning the plutonium in a CANDU reactor.

Plutonium can also be extracted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. While this consists usually of a mixture of isotopes that is not attractive for use in weapons, it can be used in a MOX formulation reducing the net amount of nuclear waste that has to be disposed of.

Plutonium isn't the only fissile material in spent nuclear fuel that CANDU reactors can utilize. Because the CANDU reactor was designed to work with natural uranium, CANDU fuel can be manufactured from the used (depleted) uranium found in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. Typically this "recovered uranium" (RU) has a U-235 enrichment of around 0.9%, which makes it unusable to an LWR, but a rich source of fuel to a CANDU (natural uranium has a U-235 abundance of roughly 0.7%). It is estimated that a CANDU reactor can extract a further 30-40% energy from LWR fuel.

Recycling of LWR fuel does not necessarily need to involve a reprocessing step. Fuel cycle tests have also included the DUPIC fuel cycle, or direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU, where used fuel from a pressurized water reactor is packaged into a CANDU fuel bundle with only physical reprocessing (cut into pieces) but no chemical reprocessing. Again, where light-water reactors require the reactivity associated with enriched fuel, the DUPIC fuel cycle is possible in a CANDU reactor due to the neutron economy which allows for the low reactivity of natural uranium and used enriched fuel.

Several inert-matrix fuels have been proposed for the CANDU design, which have the ability to "burn" plutonium and other actinides from spent nuclear fuel, much more efficiently than in MOX fuel. This is due to the "inert" nature of the fuel, so-called because it lacks uranium and thus does not create plutonium at the same time as it is being consumed.

CANDU reactors can also breed fuel from natural thorium, if uranium is unavailable.

SafetyCANDU-type reactors are designed to withstand higher seismic stresses. In the event of an earthquake, the CANDU reactor is capable of handling increased seismic loads at areas of high seismicity.[3][4]

ChronologyThe first CANDU-type reactor was Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), in Rolphton, Ontario. It was intended as a proof-of-concept design, and was rated for only 22 MWe, a very low power for a commercial power reactor. It produced the first nuclear-generated electricity in Canada, and ran successfully from 1962 to 1987.[5][6]

The second CANDU was the Douglas Point reactor, a more powerful version rated at roughly 200 MWe and located near Kincardine, Ontario. Douglas Point went into service in 1968, and ran until 1984. Uniquely among CANDU stations, Douglas Point incorporated an oil-filled window which offered a view of the east reactor face, even when the reactor was operating. The Douglas Point type was exported to India, and was the basis for India's fleet of domestically designed and built "CANDU-derivatives". Douglas Point was originally planned to be a two-unit station, but the second unit was cancelled because of the success of the larger 515 MWe units at Pickering.[7][8]

In parallel to the development of the classic CANDU heavy-water design, experimental CANDU variants were developed. WR-1, located at the AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Manitoba, used vertical pressure tubes and organic oil as the primary coolant. The oil used has a higher boiling point than water, allowing the reactor to operate at higher temperatures and lower pressures than a conventional reactor. This reactor operated successfully for many years, and promised a significantly higher thermal efficiency than water-cooled versions. Gentilly-1, near Trois-Rivières, Quebec, was also an experimental version of CANDU, using a boiling light-water coolant and vertical pressure tubes, but was not considered successful and was closed after seven years of fitful operation.

The successes at NPD and Douglas Point led to the decision to construct the first multi-unit station in Pickering, Ontario. Pickering A, consisting of Units 1 to 4, went into service in 1971. Pickering B, consisting of units 5 to 8, went into service in 1983, giving a full-station capacity of 4,120 MWe. The station is placed very close to the city of Toronto, in order to reduce transmission costs.

Pickering A was placed into voluntary lay-up in 1997, as a part of Ontario Hydro's Nuclear Improvement plan.[9] Units 1 and 4 have since been returned to service, although not without considerable controversy regarding significant cost-overruns, on Unit 4. (The refurbishment of Unit 1 was essentially on-time and on-budget.[10])

In 2005, Ontario Power Generation announced that refurbishment of Units 2 and 3 at Pickering A would not be pursued, contrary to expectations. The reason for this change in plan was economic: the material condition of these units was much poorer than had existed for Units 1 and 4, particularly the condition of the steam generators, and thus the refurbishment costs would be much higher. This rendered a return-to-service of Units 2 and 3 uneconomical. The Safe Storage project to place these two units in a safe long term storage mode, defuelled and drained, was completed in 2010.

The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, the second multi-unit CANDU station, was constructed in stages between 1970 and 1987 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. It consists of eight units each rated at approximately 800 MWe each, and is currently owned by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and run by Bruce Power.

The Bruce station is the largest nuclear facility in North America, and second largest in the world (after Kashiwazaki-Kariwa in Japan), comprising eight CANDU nuclear reactors having a total output of 6,232 MW (net) and 7,276 MW (gross) when all units are online. Current output with six of the eight reactors on line is 4,640 MW.[11] Restart of the remaining two units is planned by 2012.

EconomicsThe central functionality behind the CANDU design is heavy water moderation and on-line refuelling, which permits a range of fuel types to be used (including natural uranium, enriched uranium, thorium, and used fuel from light water reactors). Significant fuel cost savings can be realized if the uranium does not have to be enriched, but simply formed into ceramic natural uranium-dioxide fuel. This saves not only on the construction of an enrichment plant, but also on the costs of processing the fuel.

However, some of this potential savings is offset by the initial, one time cost of the heavy water. The heavy water required must be more than 99.75% pure[12] and tonnes of this are required to fill the calandria and the heat transfer system. The next generation reactor (the Advanced CANDU Reactor, also called the "ACR") mitigates this disadvantage by having a smaller moderator size and by using light water as a coolant.

Since heavy water is less efficient at transferring energy from neutrons, the moderator volume (relative to fuel volume) is larger in CANDU reactors compared with light-water designs, making a CANDU reactor core generally larger than a light water reactor of the same power output. In turn, this implies higher building costs for standard features like the containment building. This is offset to some degree by the calandria-based construction, but even considering this, the CANDU tends to have higher capital costs compared with other designs. In fact, CANDU plant costs are dominated by construction costs, the price of fuel representing perhaps 10% of the cost of the power it delivers. This is true in general of nuclear plants, where the plant cost and cost of operations represent about 65% of overall lifetime cost. Due to the lower fuelling costs compared to light water reactor designs, the levelized lifetime cost on a "per-kWh" basis tends to be comparable to these other designs.

When first being offered, CANDUs offered much better "running" time statistics, the capacity factor, than light-water reactors of a similar generation. At the time, light-water (LWR) designs spent, on average, about half of their time in maintenance or refueling outages. However, since the 1980s dramatic improvements in LWR outage management have narrowed the gap between LWR and CANDU, with several LWR units achieving capacity factors in the 90% and higher range, with an overall fleet performance of 89.5% in 2005.[13] The latest-generation CANDU 6 reactors have demonstrated an 88-90% capacity factor, but overall fleet performance is dominated by the older Canadian units which generally report capacity factors on the order of 80%.[14]

Some CANDU plants suffered from cost overruns during construction, primarily due to external factors. For instance, a number of imposed construction delays led to roughly a doubling of the projected cost of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station near Toronto, Ontario. Technical problems and redesigns added about another billion to the resulting $14.4 billion price.[15][16] In contrast, the two CANDU 6 reactors more recently installed in China at the Qinshan site were completed on-schedule and on-budget, an achievement attributed to tight control over scope and schedule.[17]

Nuclear nonproliferationIn terms of safeguards against nuclear proliferation, CANDU reactors meet a similar level of international certification as other reactor designs. However, there is a common misconception that the plutonium for India's first nuclear detonation, conducted in 1974 Operation Smiling Buddha, was produced in a CANDU design. In fact, the plutonium was produced in the unsafeguarded CIRUS reactor whose design is based on the NRX, a Canadian research reactor. In addition to its two CANDU reactors, India has some unsafeguarded pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) based on the CANDU design, and two safeguarded light-water reactors supplied by the United States. Plutonium has been extracted from the spent fuel from all of these sources in the PREFRE reprocessing facility.[18] While all of these reactors could in principle be used for plutonium production, India uses an Indian designed and built military reactor for plutonium production called Dhruva. It is believed that the Dhruva reactor design is derived from the CIRUS reactor, with the Dhruva being scaled-up for more efficient plutonium production. It is this reactor which is thought to have produced the plutonium for India's more recent (1998) Operation Shakti nuclear tests.[19]

Another concern is tritium production. Although heavy water is relatively immune to neutron capture, a small amount of the deuterium turns into tritium via this process. Tritium, when mixed with deuterium, undergoes nuclear fusion more easily than any other elemental mixture. Small amounts of tritium can be used in both the "trigger" of an A-bomb and the "fusion boost" of a boosted fission weapon. Tritium can also be used in the main fusion process of an H-bomb, but in this application it is typically generated in situ by neutron irradiation of lithium-6.

Tritium is extracted from some CANDU plants in operation in Canada, primarily to improve safety in case of heavy-water leakage. The gas is stockpiled and used in a variety of commercial products, notably "powerless" lighting systems and medical devices. In 1985 what was then Ontario Hydro sparked controversy in Ontario due to its plans to sell tritium to the U.S. The plan, by law, involved sales to non-military applications only, but some speculated that even this minor penetration of the market would aid the U.S. nuclear weapon program. Demands for this supply in the future appear to outstrip production; in particular the needs of future generations of experimental fusion reactors like ITER will use up a significant amount of any potential stockpile. Currently between 1.5 and 2.1 kg of tritium are recovered yearly at the Darlington separation facility, of which a minor fraction is sold.[20]

The 1998 Operation Shakti test series in India included one bomb of about 45 kT yield that India has publicly claimed was a hydrogen bomb. An offhand comment in the BARC publication Heavy Water — Properties, Production and Analysis appears to suggest that the tritium was extracted from the heavy water in the CANDU and PHWR reactors in commercial operation. Janes Intelligence Review quotes the Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission as admitting to the tritium extraction plant, but refusing to comment on its use.[21] It is known, however, that India has developed the technology to create tritium from the neutron-irradiation of lithium-6 in reactors, a process that is several orders of magnitude more efficient than the extraction of tritium from irradiated heavy water.

Active CANDU reactorsToday there are 29 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and a further 13 "CANDU-derivatives" in use in India (these reactors were developed from the CANDU design after India detonated a nuclear bomb in 1974 and Canada stopped nuclear dealings with India). The countries the reactors are located in are:

Canada: 17 (+3 refurbishing, +5 decommissioned)

South Korea: 4

China: 2

India: 2 (+13 CANDU-derivatives in use, +3 CANDU-derivatives under construction)

Argentina: 1

Romania: 2 (+3 under construction, currently dormant)

Pakistan: 1

Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, a CANDU designNew plantsInterest continues to be expressed in new CANDU construction around the world, and CANDU technology is typically involved in open bidding processes alongside LWR technology.

CANDU reactors have been proposed as the main vehicle for planned supply replacement and growth in Ontario, Canada, a province that currently generates over 50% of its electricity from CANDU reactors, with Canadian government help with financing.[22] Interest has also been expressed in Western Canada, where CANDU reactors are being considered as heat and electricity sources for the energy-intensive oil sands extraction process, which currently uses natural gas. Energy Alberta Corporation, headquartered in Calgary, announced August 27, 2007 that they had filed application for a licence to build a new nuclear plant at Lac Cardinal (30 km west of the town of Peace River, Alberta). The application would see an initial twin AECL ACR-1000 plant go online in 2017, producing 2.2 gigawatt (electric).[23][24][25]

Romania is in discussions for the completion of its multi-unit nuclear plant at Cernavoda, now consisting of two operating CANDU reactors completed in 1996 and 2007. Three more partially completed CANDU reactors exist on the same site, part of a project discontinued at the close of the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime.

Turkey has repeatedly shown interest in the CANDU reactor, but so far has chosen not to pursue nuclear energy. In April 2006, plans to build a nuclear reactor on the Ince peninsula caused a large anti-nuclear demonstration in the Turkish city of Sinop.[26][27]

Enhanced CANDU 6The Enhanced CANDU 6 is an evolutionary upgrade of the standard CANDU 6 design rated to deliver a gross output of 740 MWe per unit.

The units are designed with a planned operating life of over fifty years, which will be achieved with a mid-life program to replace some of the key components, such as the fuel channels. The plants have a projected average annual capacity factor of more than ninety per cent.

Enhancements to the CANDU 6 design to achieve higher plant output include the installation of an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM) to improve the accuracy of feedwater flow measurements, improvements in turbine design itself and change in condenser vacuum system design for operation at lower condenser pressures.

AECL continues to develop other features to further improve the plant’s performance while maintaining the basic features of the CANDU 6 design, which over time has proven to be extremely reliable with an excellent production record since the early 1980s. The additional enhancements include:

increased plant margins, both operational and safety

enhanced environmental protection

improved severe accident response

improved fire protection system

improved plant security

modern computers and control systems

improved plant operability and maintainability

optimized plant maintenance outages

reduced overall project schedule

advanced MACSTOR design for spent fuel storage

Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000)Main article: Advanced CANDU Reactor

The ACR-1000 represents the continuing evolution of CANDU design to match changing market conditions. ACR-1000 is the next-generation (officially, "Generation III+") CANDU technology from Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), which maintains proven elements of existing CANDU design, while making some significant modifications:

compact fuel-channel design, generating over 50% more power than a conventional CANDU-6 reactor, with approximately the same overall core diameter;

improved thermal efficiency through higher-pressure steam turbines (13 MPa primary pressure; 7 MPa steam outlet pressure, vs. approximately 10 MPa and 5 MPa, respectively, in current designs);

pressurized light-water coolant;

negative coolant void reactivity;

reduction in used fuel production by over 30%;

greater thermal efficiency due to higher operating temperatures and pressures;

reduced use of heavy water (more than half, for the same power output), thus reducing cost and eliminating many material handling concerns;

use of slightly enriched uranium (about 2%) to extend fuel life to three times that of existing *natural uranium fuel (reducing fuel waste volume by two-thirds);

average channel power increased from roughly 6 MW (CANDU 6) to roughly 7 MW;

flatter neutron flux shape, allowing 14% lower peak fuel element ratings;

longer plant operational lifetime (60 years);

longer operating cycles between maintenance outages (3 years);

90% design capacity factor;

pre-stressed concrete containment (1.8 m thick) with steel liner; and

further additions to CANDU's inherent passive safety.

At the same time the basic and defining design features of CANDU are all maintained:

modular, horizontal fuel channel core;

heavy water moderation;

simple, economical fuel bundle;

separate, cool, low-pressure moderator with back-up heat sink capability;

two independent, fast-acting shutdown systems;

ability to perform long-term flux-shaping and failed fuel management through on-line refuelling.

It is expected that the capital cost of constructing these plants will be reduced by up to 40% compared to current CANDU 6 plants.

In 2007 AECL submitted the ACR-1000 design to the British Generic Design Assessment process to evaluate reactors for a new British nuclear power station program. However in 2008 AECL withdrew the design from the evaluation stating that AECL "is focusing its marketing and licensing resources for the advanced Candu reactor on the immediate needs of the Canadian domestic marketplace."[28]

Tritium emissionsTritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen (H-3), with a half-life of 12.3 years. It is found in small amounts in nature (about 4 kg globally), created by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Tritium is considered to be a weak radionuclide because of the low energy of its radioactive emissions (beta particle energy 0 -19 keV).[29] The beta particles do not travel very far in air and do not penetrate skin; therefore the main biological hazard of tritium is due to its intake into the body (inhalation, ingestion, or absorption).

Tritium is generated in all nuclear power designs; however, CANDU reactors generate more tritium in their coolant and moderator than light-water designs, due to neutron capture in heavy hydrogen. Some of this tritium escapes into containment and is generally recovered; however a small percentage (about 1%) escapes containment and constitutes a routine radioactive emission from CANDU plants (also higher than from an LWR of comparable size). Operation of a CANDU plant therefore includes monitoring of this effluent in the surrounding biota (and publishing the results), in order to ensure that emissions are maintained below regulatory limits.

In some CANDU reactors the tritium concentration in the moderator is periodically reduced by an extraction process, in order to further reduce this risk. Typical tritium emissions from CANDU plants in Canada are less than 1% of the national regulatory limit, which is based upon the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)[30] (for example, the maximum permitted drinking water concentration for tritium in Canada,[31] 7000 Bq/L, corresponds to 1/10 of the ICRP's public dose limit). Tritium emissions from other CANDU plants are similarly low.[32][33]

In general there is significant public controversy associated with radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants, and for CANDU plants one of the main concerns is tritium. In 2007 Greenpeace published a critique of tritium emissions from Canadian nuclear power plants by Dr. Ian Fairlie.[34] This report was disputed by Dr. Richard Osborne. [35]

See alsoZEEP reactor

Nuclear power in Canada

List of nuclear reactors

Embalse nuclear power plant

Wolseong Plant - South Korea

References1.^ CBC (2009-12-17). "CANDU reactor division to be sold". CBC News.

2.^ "Canadian Nuclear FAQ". The Canadian Nuclear FAQ by Dr. Jeremy Whitlock. Retrieved 2005-03-05.

3.^ Seismic Design and Analysis of CANDU Nuclear Power Plants, 1999.

4.^ "Seismic Design Features of The ACR Nuclear Power Plant". 2003.

5.^ Canadian Nuclear Society (2007-07-07). "NPD Historical Plaque". [dead link]

6.^ [1][dead link]

7.^ Canadian Nuclear Society. "The Douglas Point Story". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008.

8.^ Canadian Nuclear Society. "Douglas Point Nuclear Power Station". Archived from the original on March 19, 2008.

9.^ Ontario Hydro was split up into five successor companies in 1999 and the electricity generating division of Ontario Hydro was named Ontario Power Generation.

10.^ "Pickering B Refurbishment Project Questions and Answers". Pickering B Refurbishment Project Questions and Answers by Ontario Power Generation. Retrieved 2008-12-15.

11.^ "The Need for More Transmission in Bruce Region". Ontario Power Authority. Retrieved 2008-04-18. [dead link]

12.^ "Canadian Nuclear FAQ". The Canadian Nuclear FAQ by Dr. Jeremy Whitlock. Retrieved March 5, 2005. A. CANDU Nuclear Power Technology A.3 What is "heavy water"? "reactor-grade" heavy water, nominally 99.75 wt% deuterium content.

13.^ US Fleet Performance[dead link]

14.^ CANDU Lifetime Performance to November 30, 2001[dead link]

15.^ Team CANDU, Debunking Darlington[dead link]

16.^ "Can CANDU estimates be trusted?" by J.A.L. Robertson (2004)

17.^ The company SNC-Lavalin has had the best record in constructing a power plant of this size. Team CANDU, "On Budget, On Time"[dead link]

18.^ Milhollin, Gary (July 1987). "Stopping the Indian Bomb". The American Journal of International Law (American Society of International Law) 81 (3): 593. doi:10.2307/2202014. JSTOR 10.2307/2202014.

19.^ Albright, David (September 1992). "India's Silent Bomb". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist 48 (7): 27–31.

20.^ [2][dead link] Archived December 24, 2004 at the Wayback Machine.[dead link]

21.^ Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (1996-03-27). "Tritium from Power Plants gives India an H-bomb capability".

22.^ Ljunggren, David (August 7, 2008). "Canada nuclear firms seek Ottawa financing". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-08-10.

23.^ Lac Cardinal (Alberta Index)

24.^ Lac Cardinal (CBC) 2007-08-28

25.^ The Hill Times page 26, 2007-06-04[dead link]

26.^ From (retrieved 2010-11-08, 0410 UTC).

27.^ From (retrieved 2010-11-08, 0410 UTC).

28.^ "AECL bows out of British reactor development to focus on Canadian projects". CBC News. April 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-10.

29.^ reviewed by Dr. Richard Osborne

30.^ "Ontario Power Generation: Safety". Retrieved 2008-12-01.

31.^ "Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines". Retrieved 2008-12-01.


33.^ "Microsoft Word - Tritiumstudyfinal-11-06-07.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-12-01.

34.^ "Dr Ian Fairlie". Retrieved 2010-09-05.


External linksThe Evolution of CANDU Fuel Cycles and Their Potential Contribution to World Peace

Organization of CANDU Industries

CANDU Owner's Group

A history of the CANDU reactor

CANTEACH - Educational and Reference Library on Candu Technology

Ontario Power Generation[dead link]

Bruce Power

New Brunswick Power[dead link]


Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission

Canadian Nuclear Society

Canadian Nuclear Association

Canadian Nuclear FAQ

CBC Digital Archives - Candu: The Canadian Nuclear Reactor

Chernobyl – A Canadian Perspective

Will CANDU do? Walrus Magazine

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