Monday, April 14, 2014
Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner Dr. Ann Cavoukian has released the findings of her Special Investigation into sensitive information about attempted suicides by Ontarians being shared with U.S. border officials.
Commissioner Cavoukian calls for Ontario Police Services to stop the indiscriminate disclosure of attempted suicide information
Commissioner Cavoukian calls for Ontario Police Services to stop the indiscriminate disclosure of attempted suicide information
TORONTO, ON (April 14, 2014) – Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner Dr. Ann Cavoukian has released the findings of her Special Investigation into sensitive information about attempted suicides by Ontarians being shared with U.S. border officials. The Report, “Crossing the Line: The Indiscriminate Disclosure of Attempted Suicide Information to U.S. Border Officials via CPIC,” recommends that Ontario police services cease the routine disclosure of suicide-related information via CPIC.
The investigation was initiated by the Commissioner upon hearing a number of stories of Ontarians being denied entry into the U.S., apparently on the basis of their mental health history. Upon ruling out the possibility of the information being disclosed by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the investigation focused on the personal information collected by the police as a consequence of interactions with individuals who had threatened or attempted suicide. This information is recorded by police services and, in the case of the Toronto Police Services, is routinely uploaded into the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) database, specifically into the Special Interest Police (SIP) repository. Maintained by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), CPIC contains a vast array of law enforcement and public safety information and is available to Canadian law enforcement agencies and to U.S. border officials through an information sharing agreement with the U.S Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Published Date Apr 14, 2014
Saturday, April 12, 2014
The Boeing 787 has been involved in multiple aviation incidents and operational problems. In December 2012, Boeing CEO James McNerney stated that the problems were no greater than those experienced with the introduction of other models such as the Boeing 777.
A Japan Airlines (JAL) 787 experienced a fuel leak on January 8, 2013, and its flight from Boston was canceled. On January 9, United Airlines reported a problem in one of its six 787s with the wiring near the main batteries. After these incidents, the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board subsequently opened a safety probe. Later, on January 11, 2013, another aircraft was found to have a fuel leak.
Also on January 11, 2013, the FAA announced a comprehensive review of the 787's critical systems, including the design, manufacture and assembly; the Department of Transportation secretary Ray LaHood stated the administration was "looking for the root causes" behind the recent issues. The head of the FAA, Michael Huerta, said that so far nothing found "suggests [the 787] is not safe".
On January 13, 2013, a JAL 787 at Narita International Airport outside Tokyo, was found to also have a fuel leak during an inspection, the third time a fuel leak had been reported within a week. The aircraft reportedly was the same one that had a fuel leak in Boston on January 8. This leak was caused by a different valve; the causes of the leaks are unknown. Japan's transport ministry has also launched an investigation.
On July 12, 2013, a fire started on an empty Ethiopian Airlines 787 parked at Heathrow Airport before it was put out by the airport fire and rescue service. No injuries were reported. The fire caused extensive heat damage to the aircraft. The FAA and NTSB sent representatives to assist in the investigation. The initial investigation found no direct link with the aircraft's main batteries. Further investigations indicated that the fire was due to lithium-manganese dioxide batteries powering an emergency locator transmitter (ELT). The UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) issued a special bulletin on July 18, 2013 requesting the US FAA ensure that the locator is removed or disconnected in Boeing 787s, and to review the safety of lithium battery-powered ELT systems in other aircraft types.
On July 26, 2013, ANA said it had found wiring damage on two 787 locator beacons. United Airlines also reported that it had found a pinched wire in one 787 locator beacon. On August 14, 2013, the media reported a fire extinguisher fault affecting three ANA airplanes, which was caused by a supplier assembly error.
On September 25, 2013, the Wall Street Journal reported that all of the five Dreamliners owned by LOT had been grounded for inspection for missing low pressure fuel filters. One 787 was found with none in both engines and another was missing a filter in one engine. On September 28, 2013, a LOT 787 had to divert to Reykjavik due to a faulty self-identification system.
On September 28, 2013, Norwegian Long Haul decided to take one of its two 787s in its fleet at the time out of service after the two aircraft broke down on more than six occasions in September. The company will lease anAirbus A340 for its long-haul operations while the 787 is returned to Boeing for repair. On December 20–22, 2013, Norwegian Long Haul experienced technical problems keeping two of its three 787 aircraft grounded at Fort Lauderdale airport and delayed six flights.
On October 15, 2013, an Air India flight from New Delhi to Bangalore lost an 8 ft by 4 ft fairing panel from its underside before landing safely. On November 4, 2013, an Air India flight from Sydney to Melbourne experienced a cracked window shortly before safely landing at Melbourne.
On November 22, 2013, Boeing issued an advisory to airlines using General Electric GEnx engines on 787 and 747-8 aircraft to avoid flying near high-level thunderstorms due to an increased risk of icing on the engines. The problem was caused by a build up of ice crystals just behind the main fan, causing a brief loss of thrust on six occasions.
On January 21, 2014, a Norwegian Air Shuttle 787 experienced a fuel leak which caused a 19-hour delay to a flight from Bangkok to Oslo. Footage of the leak taken by passengers show fuel gushing out of the left wing of the aircraft. The leak became known to pilots only after it was pointed out by concerned passengers. It was found later that a faulty valve was responsible. This fuel leak is one of numerous problems experienced by Norwegian Air Shuttle's 787 fleet. Mike Fleming, Boeing's vice president for 787 support and services, subsequently met with executives of Norwegian Air Shuttle and expressed Boeing's commitment to improving the 787's dispatch reliability, "we’re not satisfied with where the airplane is today, flying at a fleet average of 98 percent... The 777 today flies at 99.4 percent ... and that's the benchmark that the 787 needs to attain”. Dispatch reliability is an industry standard measure of the rate of departure from the gate with no more than 15 minutes delay due to technical issues.
Battery problemsMain article: Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems
The Aft Electronics Bay that held the JAL 787 battery that caught fire
Japan Airlines 787 battery comparison; Left: typical original battery. Right: damaged battery.
On January 16, 2013, All Nippon Airways Flight NH-692, en route from Yamaguchi Ube Airport to Tokyo Haneda, had a battery problem warning followed by a burning smell while climbing from Ube about 35 nautical miles west ofTakamatsu, Japan. The aircraft diverted to Takamatsu and was evacuated via the slides; three passengers received minor injuries during the evacuation. Inspection revealed a battery fire. A similar incident in a parked Japan Airlines 787 at Boston's Logan International Airport within the same week led the Federal Aviation Administration to ground all Boeing 787s in service at the time.
On January 16, 2013, both major Japanese airlines ANA and JAL announced that they were voluntarily grounding or suspending flights for their fleets of 787s after multiple incidents involving different 787s, including emergency landings. These two carriers operate 24 of the 50 Dreamliners delivered to date. The grounding is reported to have cost ANA some 9 billion yen (US$93 million) in lost sales.
On January 16, 2013, the FAA issued an emergency airworthiness directive ordering all American-based airlines to ground their Boeing 787s until yet-to-be-determined modifications were made to the electrical system to reduce the risk of the battery overheating or catching fire. This was the first time that the FAA has grounded an airliner type since 1979. Industry experts disagreed on consequences of the grounding: Airbus was confident that Boeing would resolve the issue and that no airlines will switch plane type, while other experts saw the problem as "costly" and "could take upwards of a year".
The FAA also announced plans to conduct an extensive review of the 787's critical systems. The focus of the review will be on the safety of the lithium-ion batteries made of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCo). The 787 battery contract was signed in 2005, when LiCo batteries were the only type of lithium aerospace battery available, but since then newer and safer types (such as LiFePO), which provide less reaction energy during thermal runaway, have become available. FAA approved a 787 battery in 2007 with nine "special conditions". A battery approved by FAA (through Mobile Power Solutions) was made by Rose Electronics using Kokam cells; the batteries installed in the 787 are made by Yuasa.
On January 20, the NTSB declared that overvoltage was not the cause of the Boston incident, as voltage did not exceed the battery limit of 32 V, and the charging unit passed tests. The battery had signs of short circuitingand thermal runaway. Despite this, the NTSB announced on January 24 that it had not yet pinpointed the cause of the Boston fire; the FAA will not allow Dreamliners based in the U.S. to fly again until the problem is found and corrected. In a press briefing that day, NTSB Chairwoman Deborah Hersman said that the NTSB had found evidence of failure of multiple safety systems designed to prevent these battery problems, and stated that fire must never happen on an airplane.
The Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB) has said on January 23 that the battery in ANA jets in Japan reached a maximum voltage of 31 V (below the 32 V limit like the Boston JAL 787), but had a sudden unexplained voltage drop to near zero. All cells had signs of thermal damage before thermal runaway. ANA and JAL had replaced several 787 batteries before the mishaps. As of January 29, 2013, JTSB approved the Yuasa factoryquality control while the NTSB continues to look for defects in the Boston battery. The two major battery thermal runaway events in 100,000 flight hours was much higher than the rate of one in 10 million flight hours that Boeing predicted.
The only American airline that operated the Dreamliner at the time was United Airlines, which had six. Chile's Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGAC) grounded LAN Airlines' three 787s. The Indian Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) directed Air India to ground its six Dreamliners. The Japanese Transport Ministry made the ANA and JAL groundings official and indefinite following the FAA announcement. The European Aviation Safety Agency has also followed the FAA's advice and grounded the only two European 787s operated by LOT Polish Airlines. Qatar Airways has announced that they are grounding their five Dreamliners. Ethiopian Airlines was the final operator to announce temporary groundings of its four Dreamliners. By January 17, 2013, all 50 of the aircraft delivered to date had been grounded.
On January 18, Boeing announced that it was halting 787 deliveries until the battery problem is resolved. On February 7, 2013, the FAA gave approval for Boeing to conduct 787 test flights to gather additional data. In February 2013, FAA oversight into the 2007 safety approval and certification of the 787 have come under scrutiny.
On March 7, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board released an interim factual report about the 787 battery fire at Boston's Logan Airport on January 7, 2013. The investigation stated that "heavy smoke and fire coming from the front of the APU battery case". Firefighters "tried fire extinguishing, but smoke and flame (flame size about 3 inches) did not stop".
Boeing completed its final tests on a revised battery design on April 5, 2013. Qatar Airways said it expected to have its Dreamliners back in revenue service by the end of April. The FAA approved Boeing's revised battery design with three additional, overlapping protection methods on April 19, 2013. The FAA published a directive on April 25 to provide instructions for retrofitting battery hardware before the 787s can return to flight. The repairs are expected to be completed in weeks.
Following the FAA approval in the United States, Japan gave permission for passenger airlines to resume Boeing 787 flights in the country effective April 26, 2013. On April 27, 2013, Ethiopian Airlines took a 787 on the model's first commercial flight after battery system modifications.
On January 14, 2014, a battery in a JAL 787 emitted smoke from the battery's protection exhaust while the aircraft was undergoing pre-flight maintenance. The battery partially melted in the incident; one of its eight lithium-ion cells had its relief port vent and fluid sprayed inside the battery's container. It was later reported that the battery may have reached a temperature as high as 660 Celsius, and that Boeing did not understand the root cause of the failure.
Wednesday, April 9, 2014
Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370[a]) was a scheduled international passenger flight from Kuala Lumpur International Airport to Beijing Capital International Airport. The aircraft flying the route, a Boeing 777-200ER, had last been heard from by Subang Air Traffic Control at 01:20 MYT on 8 March 2014 (17:20 UTC, 7 March), less than an hour after takeoff.[b] At 07:24, Malaysia Airlines (MAS) reported the aircraft asmissing. It was carrying 12 Malaysian crew members and 227 passengers from 14 nations.
A multi-national search and rescue effort, later reported as the largest in history, was initiated in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea. Within a few days, this was extended to include the Strait of Malaccaand Andaman Sea. On 15 March, based on military radar data and radio "pings" between the aircraft and an Inmarsat satellite, investigators concluded that it had first headed west across the Malay Peninsula, then continued on a northern or southern track for approximately seven hours. The search in the South China Sea was abandoned. Three days later the Australian Maritime Safety Authority began searching the southern part of the Indian Ocean.
On 24 March, the Malaysian government confirmed two independently made analyses by the British Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) and Inmarsat, and concluded "beyond any reasonable doubt", that the aircraft had gone down in the southern part of the Indian Ocean with no survivors. This conclusion led to all earlier search areas being abandoned, with all efforts being concentrated on the Australian-led area.
Since 22 March, marine debris was recovered on almost a daily basis from the search area in the southern part of the Indian Ocean - but none of it was related to Flight 370; and although search vesselADV Ocean Shield detected signals consistent with those emitted by aircraft black boxes on 5 and 8 April, there has been no confirmation of a crash site.
An international team has been established to investigate the incident, following International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) protocols.
1.1 Timeline of disappearance
1.2 Satellite pings
2 Assumed loss
3.1 Hypothesised routes
3.2 Hypothesised locations
3.2.1 First phase
3.2.2 Second phase
3.2.3 Third phase
3.3 International involvement
3.4 Information sharing
3.5 Analysis of satellite communication
5 Passengers and crew
6 Timeline of events
7.1 International participation
7.2 Possible passenger involvement
7.3 Crew and cargo
8 Criticism and response
9 See also
12 External links
Route: Kuala Lumpur – Beijing. Insert: initial search areas and known path through waypointsIGARI, VAMPI, and IGREX. Small red squares: radar contacts. Small circles: claimed spotting of debris.
The flight departed from Kuala Lumpur International Airport on 8 March 2014 at 00:41 local time (16:41 UTC, 7 March) and was scheduled to land at Beijing Capital International Airport at 06:30 local time (22:30 UTC, 7 March). It climbed to its assigned cruise altitude of 35,000 feet (11,000 m) and was travelling at 471 knots (872 km/h; 542 mph) true airspeed when it ceased all communications and the transponder signal was lost. The aircraft's last known position on 8 March at 01:21 local time (17:21 UTC, 7 March) was at the navigational waypoint IGARI in the Gulf of Thailand, at which the aircraft turned westwards, heading towards a waypoint called VAMPI in the Strait of Malacca, primary radar tracking suggests that the aircraft descended as low as 12,000 feet (3,700 m). From there, the aircraft flew towards a waypoint called GIVAL, arriving at 2:15 local time (18:15 UTC, 7 March), thereafter to the Southern Thailand Islands (Andaman Coast) of Phuket, and was last plotted heading northwest towards another waypoint called IGREX.
The crew was expected to contact air traffic control in Ho Chi Minh City as the aircraft passed into Vietnamese airspace, just north of the point where contact was lost. The captain of another aircraft attempted to reach the crew of Flight 370 "just after 1:30 am" using the International distress frequency to relay Vietnamese air traffic control's request for the crew to contact it; the captain said he was able to establish contact, and just heard "mumbling" and static.
Malaysia Airlines (MAS) issued a media statement at 07:24, one hour after the scheduled arrival of the flight at Beijing, stating that contact with the flight had been lost by Malaysian ATC at 02:40. MAS stated that the government had initiated search and rescue operations. It later emerged that Subang Air Traffic Control had lost contact with the aircraft at 01:22 and notified Malaysia Airlines at 02:40. Neither the crew nor the aircraft's onboard communication systems relayed a distress signal, indications of bad weather, or technical problems before the aircraft vanished from radar screens.
Timeline of disappearance
00:00 8 March 7 March Take-off from KUL (Kuala Lumpur)
00:20 01:01 17:01 Crew confirms altitude of 35,000 feet (11,000 m)
00:26 01:07 17:07 Last ACARS data transmission received; crew confirms altitude of 35,000 feet, a second time
00:38 01:19 17:19 Last Malaysian ATC voice contact
00:40 01:21 17:21 Last secondary radar (transponder) contact at 6°55′15″N 103°34′43″E
00:41 01:22 17:22 Transponder and ADS-B no longer operating.
00:49 01:30 17:30 Voice contact attempt by another aircraft, at request of Vietnam ATC; mumbling and radio static heard in reply
00:56 01:37 17:37 Missed expected half-hourly ACARS data transmission
01:34 02:15 18:15 Last primary radar contact by Malaysian military, 200 miles (320 km) NW of Penang
01:41 02:22 18:22 1st of 6 roughly hourly Classic Aero pings (handshakes) (since last ACARS transmission) via the Inmarsat-3 F1 satellite
05:49 06:30 22:30 Missed scheduled arrival at PEK (Beijing)
06:43 07:24 23:24 Malaysia Airlines pronounces flight missing in statement released to media
07:30 08:11 8 March 6th and last successful automated hourly handshake with Inmarsat-3 F1
07:38 08:19 00:19 Unscheduled, unexplained partial handshake transmitted by aircraft
08:34 09:15 01:15 Scheduled hourly ping attempt by Inmarsat goes unanswered by aircraft
On 11 March, New Scientist reported that, prior to the aircraft's disappearance, two Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) reports had been automatically issued to engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce's monitoring centre in the United Kingdom; and The Wall Street Journal, citing sources in the US government, asserted that Rolls-Royce had received an aircraft health report every thirty minutes for five hours, implying that the aircraft had remained aloft for four hours after its transponder went offline.
The following day, Hishamuddin Hussein, the acting Minister of Transport, refuted the details of The Wall Street Journal report stating that the final engine transmission was received at 01:07 MYT, prior to the flight's disappearance from secondary radar. The WSJlater amended its report and stated simply that the belief of continued flight was "based on analysis of signals sent by the Boeing 777's satellite-communication link... the link operated in a kind of standby mode and sought to establish contact with a satellite or satellites. These transmissions did not include data..."
Inmarsat said that "routine, automated signals were registered" on its network, and that analysis of "keep-alive message[s]" that continued to be sent after air traffic control first lost contact could help pinpoint the aircraft's location, which led The Independent to comment on 14 March that the aircraft could not have met with a sudden catastrophic event, or all signals would have stopped simultaneously. There was a call for automated transponders after the attacks of 11 September 2001; however, no changes were made as aviation experts preferred flexible control, in case of malfunctions or electrical emergencies.
On 25 March, Hishamuddin revealed that Inmarsat had found evidence that the aircraft had attempted another handshake with the satellite at 00:19 UTC, eight minutes after the last hourly report. This "partial ping" initiated by the aircraft was unscheduled, not the result of any human interaction, and not yet understood.
Messages of hope and prayer for MH370 at a bookstore in Malaysia
On 24 March, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak said,
Using a type of analysis never before used in an investigation of this sort... Inmarsat and the AAIB have concluded that MH370 flew along the southern corridor, and that its last position was in the middle of the Indian Ocean, west of Perth. This is a remote location, far from any possible landing sites. It is therefore with deep sadness and regret that I must inform you that, according to this new data, flight MH370 ended in the southern Indian Ocean.[c]
Just before Najib spoke at 22:00 MYT, Malaysia Airlines announced that Flight 370 was assumed lost with no survivors. It notified most of the families in person or via telephone, and some received the following SMS:
Malaysia Airlines deeply regrets that we have to assume beyond any reasonable doubt that MH370 has been lost and that none of those on board survived. As you will hear in the next hour from Malaysia's Prime Minister, we must now accept all evidence suggests the plane went down in the Southern Indian Ocean.
Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Xie Hangsheng reacted sceptically to the conclusion by demanding "all the relevant information and evidence about the satellite data analysis", and said that the Malaysian government must "finish all the work including search and rescue." If the official assumption of no survivors holds, it would be the deadliest aviation incident in the history of Malaysia Airlines (surpassing the 1977 hijacking and crash of Malaysian Airline System Flight 653 that killed all 100 passengers and crew on board) and the deadliest to date involving a Boeing 777, surpassing Asiana Airlines Flight 214. It would also be the second-deadliest incident in the Indian Ocean, behind Iran Air Flight 655, and the 17th-deadliest incident of all time.
British satellite company Inmarsat had provided officials (or its partner, SITA) with data on 11 March, three days after the aircraft disappeared, suggesting the aircraft was nowhere near the areas in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea being searched at that time; and may have diverted its course through a southern or northern corridor, information only publicly acknowledged and released by Najib on 15 March in a press conference. Criticism was also levelled at the delay of the search efforts. Explaining why information about satellite signals had not been made available earlier, Malaysia Airlines said that the raw satellite signals needed to be verified and analysed "so that their significance could be properly understood" before it could publicly confirm their existence.Hishammuddin said Malaysian and US investigators had immediately discussed the Inmarsat data upon receiving them on 12 March, and on two occasions, both groups agreed that it needed further processing and sent the data to the US twice for this purpose. Their analysis was completed on 14 March, by then, the AAIB independently arrived at the same conclusion.
On 29 March, the Government of Malaysia and the AAIB stated that, in accordance with the protocols detailed in International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 13 concerning aircraft accident investigation, they would set up an international team to investigate the loss of the flight. On 30 March, Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced the appointment of retired Australian Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston to head the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) to co-ordinate the search effort and closely co-operate with Malaysia, whose government is responsible under international law.
Search for aircraft. Pink circle: Range of aircraft based on fuel (5,300 km). Ping corridors: possible locations (in red) of aircraft at last ping to Inmarsat and possible last location (lighter red) based on residual fuel. Search areas: 1) 8–20 March, 2) 20–27 March, 3) 28 March.
On 11 March, it was reported that military radar indicated the aircraft turned west away from the intended flight path and continued flying for 70 minutes before disappearing off the Malaysian radar nearPulau Perak. It was also reported that it had been tracked flying at a lower altitude across Malaysia to the Malacca Strait. This location was approximately 500 kilometres (310 mi) from its last contact with civilian radar. The next day, the Royal Malaysian Air Force chief denied the report. A Vietnamese transport minister said Malaysia was informed on the day that they "noticed the flight turned back west but Malaysia did not respond."
An American radar expert, assigned to assist with the investigation, analysed the radar data and subsequently reported that the radar data did indeed indicate that the aircraft had headed west back across the Malay Peninsula. The New York Times reported that the aircraft experienced significant changes in altitude.
Although Bloomberg News said that analysis of the last satellite "ping" received suggested a last known location approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) west of Perth, Western Australia, the Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak on 15 March said that the last signal, received at 08:11 Malaysian time, might have originated from as far north as Kazakhstan. Najib explained that the signals could not be more precisely located than to one of two possible loci: a northern locus stretching approximately from the border of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to northern Thailand, or a southern locus stretching fromIndonesia to the southern Indian Ocean. Many of the countries on a possible northerly flight route – China, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, and India – denied the aircraft could have entered their country's airspace, because military radar would have detected it.
Although it was later confirmed that the last ACARS transmission showed nothing unusual and a normal routing all the way to Beijing, The New York Times reported "senior American officials" saying on 17 March that the scheduled flight path was pre-programmed to unspecified western coordinates through the flight management system before the ACARS stopped functioning, and a new waypoint "far off the path to Beijing" was added. Such a reprogramming would have resulted in a banked turn at a comfortable angle of around 20 degrees that would not have caused undue concern for passengers. The sudden cessation of all on-board communication led to speculation that the aircraft's disappearance may have been due to foul play.
[show]Map of all coordinates from Google
Map of up to 200 coordinates from Bing
As the available data analyses of the flight were refined, the foci of search operations changed to different areas in three distinct phases.
An admiral of the Vietnamese navy reported that radar contact with the aircraft was last made over the Gulf of Thailand. Oil slicks detected off the coast of Vietnam on 8 and 9 March later tested negative for aviation fuel. Alleged discovery of debris about 140 km (87 mi) south-west of Phú Quốc Island near 80 km (50 mi) south of Thổ Chu Island on 9 March was also found to be not from an aircraft. Searches following a Chinese website's satellite images, taken on 9 March, showing three floating objects measuring up to 24 × 22 metres (79 × 72 ft) at 6.7°N 105.63°E also turned up blank; Vietnamese officials said the area had been "searched thoroughly".
The Royal Thai Navy shifted its focus in the search away from the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea at the request of its Malaysian counterpart, which was investigating the possibility that the aircraft had turned around and could have gone down in theAndaman Sea, near Thailand's border. The chief of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, Rodzali Daud, claimed that military recordings of radar signals did not exclude the possibility of the aircraft turning back on its flight path. The search radius was increased from the original 20 nautical miles (37 km; 23 mi) from its last known position, south of Thổ Chu Island, to 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi), and the area being examined then extended to the Strait of Malacca along the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, with waters both to the east of Malaysia in the Gulf of Thailand, and in the Strait of Malacca along Malaysia's west coast, being searched.
On 12 March, authorities also began to search the Andaman Sea, northwest of the Strait of Malacca, and the Malaysian government requested help from India to search in the area.
On 13 March, White House Press Secretary Jay Carney said "an additional search area may be opened in the Indian Ocean based on some new information" and a senior official at The Pentagon told ABC News: "We have an indication the plane went down in the Indian Ocean." On 17 March, Australia agreed to lead the search in the southern locus from Sumatra to the southern Indian Ocean. The search would be coordinated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), with an area of 600,000 km2(230,000 sq mi) between Australia and the Kerguelen Islands lying more than 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) Southwest of Perth, to be searched by ships and aircraft of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. This area, which Australian PM Tony Abbottdescribed as "as close to nowhere as it's possible to be", is renowned for its strong winds, inhospitable climate, hostile seas, and deep ocean floors. On 18 March, the search of the area began with a single Royal Australian Air Force P-3 Orion aircraft. On 19 March, the search capacity was ramped up to three aircraft and three merchant ships; the revised search area of 305,000 square kilometres (118,000 sq mi) is about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) south-west of Perth.
Search efforts intensified on 20 March, after large pieces of possible debris had been photographed in this area four days earlier by a satellite. Australian, US, China, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea all tasked military and civilian assets to the area. China published images from satellite Gaofen 1 on 22 March that showed large debris about 120 km (75 mi) south west of the previous sighting; On 26 March, images from French satellites indicated 122 floating objects in the southern Indian Ocean Thai satellite images published on 27 March showed about 300 floating objects about 200 km (120 mi) from the French satellite's target area. The abundant finds, none yet confirmed to be from the flight, brought the realisation of the prior lack of surveillance over the area, and the vast amounts of marine debris littering the oceans.
Deployment of a towed pinger locator
Revised estimates of the radar track and the aircraft's remaining fuel led to a move of the search 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) north-east of the previous area on 28 March, to a new search area of 319,000 square kilometres (123,000 sq mi), roughly 1,850 kilometres (1,150 mi) west of Perth. This search area has more hospitable weather conditions.
On 30 March, four large orange-coloured objects found by search aircraft described by media as "the so far most promising lead" turned out to be fishing equipment. On 2 April, the centre of the search area was shifted again 456 kilometres (283 mi) east, to a position 1,504 kilometres (935 mi) west of Perth. The same day, Royal Navy and survey vessel HMS Echo and submarine HMS Tireless arrived in the area, with the latter starting immediately to search for the aircraft's underwater locator beacons fitted to the "black box" flight recorders, the batteries of which were expected to expire around 7 April.
On 4 April, the search was refocused to three more northerly areas from 1,060 to 2,100 kilometres (660 to 1,300 mi) west of Learmonth, spanning over 217,000 square kilometres (84,000 sq mi). ADV Ocean Shieldfitted with a TPL-25 towed pinger locator, together with HMS Echo – which carried a "similar device", began searching for pings along a 240 kilometres (150 mi) seabed line believed to be the Flight 370 impact area.Operators considered it a shot in the dark, when comparing the vast search area with the fact that TPL-25 can only search up to 50 square miles (130 km2) per day. Ocean Shield was also carrying a US Navy Bluefin-21unmanned underwater vehicle for searching the seabed by side-scan sonar, but using this technique is roughly three times slower than a TPL-25.
On 5 April, Chinese media announced an unconfirmed report that Haixun 01 had picked up two short episodes of pulsing 37.5 kHz signals through a handheld hydrophone, at about 25°S 101°E, one on 4 April, and another the day after at 15:36 MYT. The following day the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) ordered HMS Echo to the area, to attempt verification with more advanced equipment.
On 6 April, JACC made an initial announcement that Ocean Shield had also picked up a signal, about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) from Haixun 01. It was announced the next day that the TPL-25 pinger locator towed by Ocean Shield had picked up a signal twice on 6 April. The first, in the morning of 6 April at approximately 300 metres (980 ft) depth, lasted 2 hours and 20 minutes; the second episode took place at approximately 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) depth, and lasted 13 minutes. During the second episode, two distinct pinger returns were audible. Both episodes of recorded signals, which took place at roughly the same position (within a 800–2000 yards' distance), were considered to be consistent with the signals emitted by the beacons attached to an aircraft's black boxes under water. The Ocean Shield events were recorded at the northern border of a newly-calculated impact area that was announced on 7 April, while the Haixun 01 events had been recorded at its southern border. ADV Ocean Shield detected two more signals in the afternoon and evening on 8 April.The first signal was received for five minutes and 32 seconds, and the second for around seven minutes.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Search of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.
In response to the incident, the Malaysian government mobilised its civil aviation department, air force, navy, and Maritime Enforcement Agency; and requested international assistance under Five Power Defence Arrangementsprovisions and from neighbouring states. Various nations mounted a search and rescue mission in the region's waters. Within two days, the countries had already dispatched more than 34 aircraft and 40 ships to the area. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization Preparatory Commission analysed information from its network of infrasound detection stations, but failed to find any sounds made by Flight 370.
On 11 March, the China Meteorological Administration activated the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters, a 15 member organisation whose purpose is to "...provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters," the first time the charitable and humanitarian redeployment of the assorted corporate, national space agency, and international satellite assets under its aegis had been used to search for an airliner.
Another 11 countries joined the search efforts by 17 March, after more assistance was requested by Malaysia, bringing the total to 26. While not participating in the search itself, Sri Lanka gave permission for search aircraft to use its airspace. Assets deployed by Malaysia included military fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, and vessels from the navy and Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency. A co-ordination centre at the National Disaster Control Centre (NDCC) in Pulau Meranti, Cyberjaya was established.
The United Kingdom is providing technical assistance from the Ministry of Defence, the Hydrographic Office, Department for Transport and the Met Office; and personnel from the RAF.
Other nations provided the following assets:
Australia: air force Lockheed P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft; navy ships HMAS Success and ADV Ocean Shield, and four long-range civilian jets.
Bangladesh: navy frigates BNS Bangabandhu and BNS Umar Farooq; navy Dornier Do 228 maritime patrol aircraft.
Brunei: Darussalam-class offshore patrol vessel.
Cambodia: Harbin Z-9 helicopters and P46-type navy ships.
China (PRC): Type 053H3 frigate Mianyang, marine police vessel No. 3411, Type 054A frigate Changzhou, Type 052C destroyer Haikou, Changchun, Type 071 amphibious transport dock JinggangShan,KunlunShan, patrol ship Haixun 31, Type 925 submarine support ship Yongxingdao, research vessel Xuelong, rescue ship Haixun 01, and merchant ships, rescue vessel Nanhaijiu 101, Nanhaijiu 115, Donghaijiu 101, Type 903 replenishment ship Qiandaohu, Chaohu. Several military satellites retasked, Two Ilyushin Il-76s
France: a team from the Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile (BEA). The satellites Spot-5, Spot-6, Pleiades 1A and 1B, whose data are analysed by the teams of the Minister of Defence.
India: surface and airborne assets from the Andaman and Nicobar Command and Eastern Naval Command: navy ships INS Satpura, INS Sahyadri, INS Saryu, INS Batti Malv, INS Kesari and INS Kumbhir; coast guard vesselsICGS Kanaklata Baruah, ICGS Bhikaji Cama and ICGS Sagar; navy Boeing P-8 maritime surveillance aircraft; navy and coast guard Dornier Do 228s; air force Lockheed C-130 Hercules and Mil Mi-17.Rukmini naval satellite.
Indonesia: corvette KRI Sutanto, patrol boat KRI Siribua and fast patrol vessels KRI Matacora, KRI Tarihu and KRI Krait; IPTN NC-212 maritime patrol aircraft.
Japan: naval defence force Lockheed P-3 Orion and air defence force C-130 Hercules aircraft; coast guard Gulfstream V; and a disaster relief team.
Myanmar: naval vessels in Gulf of Martaban and the Bay of Bengal.
New Zealand: air force P-3 surveillance Orion.
Norway: a Norwegian RoRo merchant ship, the Höegh St. Petersburg.
Philippines: navy ships BRP Gregorio del Pilar, BRP Emilio Jacinto and BRP Apolinario Mabini; air force Fokker F27 and navy Britten-Norman Defender aircraft; and navy AgustaWestland AW109 helicopter. A Hamilton-class cutter vessel and a C-130 Hercules on standby.
Russia: Resurs-P No.1 satellite.
Singapore: in South China Sea/Malacca Strait: air force C-130 Hercules; navy Formidable-class frigate with one Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk helicopter; a submarine rescue ship with divers; Victory-class corvette;an air force Fokker 50 maritime patrol aircraft. In the Indian Ocean, all previously-deployed ships and aircraft were stood down and instead the armed forces' Information Fusion Centre was activated.
South Korea: navy P-3 Orion and air force C-130 Hercules aircraft.
Taiwan (ROC): air force C-130 Hercules; ROCS Tian Dan and a La Fayette-class frigate; two coast guard patrol vessels.
Thailand: Dornier Do 228, AgustaWestland Super Lynx helicopter and patrol ship HTMS Pattani. Other ships on standby.
United Arab Emirates: two military search and rescue aircraft.
United Kingdom: a team of Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) investigators, hydrographic survey ship HMS Echo, and nuclear submarine HMS Tireless.
United States: Towed Pinger Locator 25, navy P-3 Orion and Boeing P-8 aircraft; Navy ships USS Kidd and USS Pinckney with Sikorsky MH-60R Seahawk helicopters; a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) team.
Vietnam: Antonov An-26, de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter, Mil Mi-171, and ships from the navy, coast guard, fisheries control, and Maritime Search & Rescue Coordination Centre.
As of 30 March, the following seven countries had employed assets to the Australian-led search area: Australia, China, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States. On 2 April, the United Kingdom also joined the search operation.
Although Malaysia's acting Transport Minister Hishammuddin Hussein, who is also the country's Defence Minister, denied the existence of problems between the participating countries, academics said that because of regional conflicts, there were genuine trust issues involved in co-operation and sharing intelligence, and that these were hampering the search. International relations experts said entrenched rivalries over sovereignty, security, intelligence, and national interests made meaningful multilateral co-operation very difficult. A Chinese academic made the observation that the parties were searching independently, thus it was not a multilateral search effort.
Malaysia had initially declined to release raw data from its military radar, deeming the information "too sensitive", but later acceded. Defence experts say that giving others access to radar information may be sensitive on a military level. As an example: "The rate at which they can take the picture can also reveal how good the radar system is." One suggested that some countries may already have had radar data on the aircraft and were reluctant to share any information that could potentially reveal their defence capabilities and compromise their own security. Similarly, submarines patrolling the South China Sea might have information in the event of a water impact, and sharing such information could reveal the subs' locations and listening capabilities. The Guardiannoted the Vietnamese permission given for Chinese aircraft to overfly its airspace as a positive sign of co-operation.
Satellite imagery is also being made available by Tomnod for the public to help with the search through crowdsourcing.
Analysis of satellite communicatio
The datalink for Malaysia Airline's avionics communications is supplied by SITA, which contracted with Inmarsat to provide a satellite communication link using Inmarsat's Classic Aero service. The aircraft's satellite communication (SATCOM) system is used to transmit messages from the cockpit as well as automated messages from on-board systems using the ACARS communications protocol, but may also be used to transmit FANS & ATN messages and provide voice, fax and data links using other protocols. The SATCOM signals from the aircraft are picked up by Inmarsat's constellation of satellites and relayed to ground stations. In the absence of a signal from a terminal, the ground station will transmit hourly 'log on/log off' messages – informally referred to as a 'ping' – to the terminal; an active terminal automatically responds. The entire process is referred to as a 'handshake'. After ACARS equipment on the aircraft was disabled, the SATCOM transceiver aboard Flight 370 completed six handshakes; the final complete handshake occurring at 00:11 UTC on 8 March (08:11 MYT).
Although the ACARS system on Flight 370 was disabled at 01:21 MYT (17:21 UTC, 7 March), the SATCOM terminal remained operable. On 8 March, Inmarsat provided basic flight data relating to Flight 370 to SITA, who relayed information to Malaysia Airlines and investigators. On 9–10 March, Inmarsat engineers noted that the ground station log recorded pings from the aircraft for several hours after contact was lost with air traffic control. An analysis of the time difference between the transmission of the ping and the aircraft's response allowed Inmarsat to determine the aircraft's distance from the satellite, resulting in the plotting of two arcs—referred to as the 'Northern Corridor' and 'Southern Corridor' where the aircraft may have been located at the time of its last complete handshake at 00:11 UTC.
Inmarsat conducted further analysis on the signals received during the handshakes, focusing on the frequency shift of the signal emitted from the aircraft compared with the actual frequency received, known as the burst frequency offset, using a baseline of earlier system data for the aircraft, satellite, and ground station. The burst frequency offset, caused by the Doppler effect, varies based on the aircraft's speed and whether it is moving towards or away from the satellite. Using an "innovative technique" that has "never before [been] used in an investigation of this sort", the team determined they could also use the burst frequency offset to determine the aircraft's speed and position along the identified arcs. Inmarsat cross-checked their methodology to known flight data from six Boeing 777 aircraft flying in various directions on the same day, and found a good match. Applying the technique to the handshake signals from Flight 370 gave results that correlated strongly with the expected and actual measurements of a southern trajectory over the Indian Ocean, but poorly with a northern trajectory. Further revised calculations to account for movements of the satellite relative to the earth, allowed the northern corridor to be ruled out completely. This analysis was passed on to Malaysian authorities on 23 March. At 22:00 local time the next day, Prime Minister Najib cited this development to conclude that "Flight MH370 ended in the southern Indian Ocean."
In addition to the six completed handshakes between Flight 370 and the ground station after ACARS stopped sending messages, there is "evidence of a partial handshake" at 00:19 UTC which was not immediately well understood and is subject to further investigation. Since the aircraft did not respond to a ping at 01:15 UTC, it was concluded that at some point between 00:11 UTC and 01:15 UTC, the aircraft lost the ability to communicate with the ground station, which Malaysia's Department of Civil Aviation noted was "consistent with the maximum endurance of the aircraft". Of note, the SATCOM terminal on an aircraft requires power from the aircraft to operate.
Malaysian investigators set up an international working group, consisting of various agencies with experience in aircraft performance and satellite communications, to further analyse the signals between Flight 370 and the ground station, especially the signal at 00:19 UTC. These included representatives from the UK's Inmarsat, AAIB and Rolls-Royce; China's Civil Aviation Administration and Aircraft Accident Investigation Department; the US NTSB and FAA, and Malaysian authorities. Also on 7 April, JACC announced that the Malaysian technical investigation team indicated that the partial ping from Flight 370 at 08:19 MYT was most likely when it impacted with the water. Together with further refinement of the satellite data calculation, the investigation team hypothesised a reduced search area.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to aircraft 9M-MRO.
Flight 370 was operated with a Boeing 777-2H6ER,[d] serial number 28420, registration 9M-MRO. The 404th Boeing 777 produced, it first flew on 14 May 2002, and was delivered new to Malaysia Airlines on 31 May 2002. The aircraft was powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent 892 engines, and was configured to carry 282 passengers – 35 in business class and 247 in economy. 9M-MRO had accumulated 53,460 hours and 7,525 cycles in service, and had not previously been involved in any major incidents, though a minor incident while taxiing at Shanghai Pudong International Airport in August 2012 resulted in a broken wingtip. Its lastmaintenance 'A' check was carried out on 23 February 2014.
The Boeing 777, introduced in 1994, is generally regarded by aviation experts as having an "almost flawless" safety record, one of the best of any commercial aircraft. Since its first commercial flight in June 1995, there have been only three other serious accidents involving hull-loss: British Airways Flight 38 in 2008; a cockpit fire in a parked Egyptair 777-200 at Cairo International Airport in 2011; and Asiana Airlines Flight 214 in 2013, in which three people died.
Passengers and crew
People on board by nationalityNationalityNo. Australia 6
Hong Kong[e] 1
New Zealand 2
United States 3
Malaysia Airlines released the names and nationalities of the 227 passengers and 12 crew members, based on the flight manifest, later modified to include two Iranian passengers travelling on stolen passports.
Two-thirds of the 227 passengers were Chinese citizens, including a group of 19 artists with six family members and four staff returning from a calligraphy exhibition of their work in Kuala Lumpur; 38 passengers were Malaysian. The remaining passengers were from 13 different countries. Of the total, 20 were employees of Freescale Semiconductor, a company based in Austin, Texas – 12 of whom were from Malaysia and 8 from China. One passenger who worked as a flight engineer for a Swiss jet charter company was briefly suspected as potential hijacker because he was thought to have the relevant skill set.
Under a 2007 agreement with Malaysia Airlines, Tzu Chi – an international Buddhist organisation – immediately sent specially trained teams to Beijing and Malaysia to give emotional support to passengers' families. The airline also sent its own team of caregivers and volunteers and agreed to bear the expenses of bringing family members of the passengers to Kuala Lumpur and providing them with accommodation, medical care, and counselling.Altogether, 115 family members of the Chinese passengers flew to Kuala Lumpur. Some other family members chose to remain in China, fearing they would feel too isolated in Malaysia. The airline's offer of an ex gratiacondolence payment of US$5,000 to the family of each passenger was initially rejected; the amounts were handed out to relatives on 12 March. It was also reported that Malaysian relatives only received $2,000.
All the 12 crew members were Malaysian citizens. The flight's captain was 53-year-old Zaharie Ahmad Shah from Penang; he joined MAS in 1981 and had 18,365 hours of flying experience. Zaharie was also an examiner qualified to conduct simulator tests for pilots.
The first officer was 27-year-old Fariq Abdul Hamid, an employee of MAS since 2007, with 2,763 flying hours. This was Fariq's first flight as a fully qualified B-777 first officer, following the completion of his supervised transition to that aircraft.
Timeline of events
Date (UTC)CategoryEvent7 March Media Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) Malaysia and Malaysia Airlines confirms Subang Air Traffic Control outside Kuala Lumpur lost contact with Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 370 on 8 March 2014 at 02:40 local time (on 7 March 2014 at 18:40 UTC), later corrected to 01:30 local time (17:30 UTC) located at 6°33′05″N 103°20′39″E
Search Malaysian and Vietnamese authorities jointly searching in the Gulf of Thailand area; China dispatches two maritime rescue ships to the South China Sea.
8 March Search An international search and rescue mission mobilised, focusing on Gulf of Thailand. Natuna Islands archipelago and South China Sea. Malaysia, Vietnam, China, Singapore and Indonesia.
Media Malaysia Airlines releases passenger manifest of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370.
Two men from Austria and Italy, listed among the passengers on MH370, are not in fact on board. Officials in both countries say that they had had their passport stolen.
9 March Search The search zone expanded, to include areas in the Strait of Malacca as military radar tracking indicates aircraft might have turned west from its flight plan and flight path.
Investigation INTERPOL confirms that at least two passengers are found to have been travelling on stolen passports registered in its databases.
10 March Search Ten Chinese satellites deployed in the search. Oil slicks on the surface of the South China Sea test negative for jet fuel.
Media Malaysia Airlines announces it will give US$5,000 to the relatives of each passenger.
11 March Investigation INTERPOL says that two false identities are not linked to the disappearance.
Media China activates the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters.
12 March Search Chinese satellite images of possible debris from Flight 370 in the South China Sea at 6.7°N 105.63°E released, but surface search finds no wreckage. Malaysian government receives Inmarsat info that Flight 370 pinged for hours after ACARS went off-line.
Media Chinese government criticises Malaysia for inadequate answers regarding Flight 370.
Investigation Royal Malaysian Air Force chief says that an aircraft plotted on military radar crossed the Malaysian states of Pahang, Terengganu, Selangor, Perak and Penang after changing course, towards a waypoint called GIVAL at 2:15 local time (18:15 UTC, 7 March), 200 miles (320 km) northwest of Penang Island off Malaysia's west coast. It followed standard aviation corridors. Search and rescue efforts being stepped up in Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.
14 March Investigation Investigation concludes that Flight 370 was still under human control after it lost ground control contact.
Media MAS retires the MH370/MH371 flight number pair.
15 March Search New phase of multi-national search and rescue operations within two areas in the northern and southern "corridors". Twenty-six countries involved, among the northern corridor countries are Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, China, Thailand, including South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand. The southern corridor covers Indonesia, Australia, and the Indian Ocean.
India continues search for Malaysia Airlines MH370; Malaysia ends hunt in South China Sea.
Investigation Malaysian police search the homes of both of the aircraft's pilots.
CTBTO analysts report no clues found from seismic shocks and sound wave monitoring around the world.
16 March Search Twenty-five countries are involved in the search. India ends its search in the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.
17 March Search Search area reported by Malaysian authorities to be 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), as a belt beneath the last possible arc position stretching from Kazakhstan over Indonesia to the southern part of the Indian Ocean. Australia pledges to lead a search from Sumatra to the southern Indian Ocean.
18 March Search China starts a search operation in its own territory. Australia conducts an aerial search through waters West and North of Cocos Islands and Christmas Island (close to Indonesia). Australia also conducts its first aerial search of the southern Indian Ocean, roughly 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) South-west of Perth.
19 March Search Australia searches the southern Indian Ocean with three aircraft and three merchant ships, transiting through a slightly revised search area of 305,000 square kilometres (118,000 sq mi) about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) South-west of Perth.
20 March Search Prime minister of Australia, Tony Abbott, told parliament that the "new and credible information" had emerged from expert analysis of satellite imagery. Five aircraft and a fourth (merchant) ship are dispatched to 44°03′02″S 91°13′27″E.
22 March Search Chinese satellite image taken on 18 March shows a possible object measuring 22.5 by 13 metres (74 by 43 ft) at 44°57′30″S 90°13′40″E, approximately 3,170 kilometres (1,970 mi) west of Perth and 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the earlier sighting, but did not confirm the object's nature.
24 March Media Prime Minister of Malaysia announces that Flight 370 is assumed to have gone down in the southern Indian Ocean; Malaysia Airlines states to families that it assumes "beyond reasonable doubt" there are no survivors.
Search Search area narrowed to the southern part of the Indian Ocean west and southwest of Australia. The northern search corridor (northwest of Malaysia) and the northern half of the southern search corridor (the waters between Indonesia and Australia) are definitively ruled out. An Australian search aircraft spots two objects at sea, 1,550 miles (2,490 km) southwest of Perth.
26 March Search French satellite images captured on 23 March show 122 possible pieces of debris at 44°41′24″S 90°25′19.20″E, 44°41′38.45″S 90°29′31.20″E and 44°40′10.20″S 90°36′25.20″E.
Media UK Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has a team of investigators from other states as part of an international effort supporting the Malaysian authorities in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) code.
27 March Search The search area narrows to roughly 76,000 square kilometres (29,000 sq mi). Thai satellite images, captured on 24 March by Thaichote, show 300 floating objects about 200 kilometres (120 mi) south of the area depicted in the previous French images. Japanese satellite images, captured on 26 March, show 10 square floating objects, also about 200 kilometres (120 mi) south of the area depicted in the French images. Five ships from Australia and China are actively engaged.
28 March Search Search shifts to a new 319,000-square-kilometre (123,000 sq mi) area 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) northeast of the previous search area.
29 March Media Malaysia announces that an international panel will be formed under United Nations protocols to investigate the MH370 incident.
30 March Media Prime Minister of Australia announces newly formed Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) headed by Angus Houston. Military air crew from Australia, China, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States are actively engaged.
5 April Search Chinese patrol ship Haixun 01 detects a pulse signal at 25°S 101°E. Ocean Shield also picks up two longer lasting signals.  
8 April Search Ocean Shield picks up two further signals 3,500 metres deep, close to those of 5 April.
On 8 March, although formal (ICAO-sanctioned) investigation had not yet started, Boeing announced that it was assembling a team of experts to provide technical assistance to investigators, in accordance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) protocols. The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) soon thereafter announced it was sending its own team of investigators with technical advisers from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had already deployed technical experts and agents to investigate the disappearance. A senior US law enforcement official clarified that FBI agents had not been sent to Malaysia. By 17 March the investigation was also being assisted by Interpol and other relevant international law enforcement authorities according to the Malaysian government.
On 6 April Malaysia announced it has set up three ministerial committees to help co-ordinate the search, and a new investigation team including members from Australia, China, the US, the UK, and France, being led according to the ICAO standards by "an independent investigator in charge". The investigation into the plane's disappearance is Malaysia's responsibility; Australia is co-ordinating the ocean search. Australia, the US, UK, and China have agreed to be "accredited representatives" of the investigation.
Possible passenger involvement
Two men identified on the manifest, an Austrian and an Italian, had reported their passports stolen in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Interpol stated that both passports were listed on its database of lost and stolen passports, and that no check had been made against its database. Malaysia's Home Minister, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, criticised his country's immigration officials for failing to stop the passengers travelling on the stolen European passports. The two one-way tickets purchased for the holders of the stolen passports were booked through China Southern Airlines. It was reported that an Iranian had ordered the cheapest tickets to Europe via telephone in Bangkok, Thailand. The tickets were paid for in cash. The two passengers were later identified as Iranian men, one aged 19 and the other 29, who had entered Malaysia on 28 February using valid Iranian passports. The head of Interpol said the organisation was "inclined to conclude that it was not a terrorist incident". The two men were believed to be asylum seekers. United States and Malaysian officials were reviewing the backgrounds of every passenger named on the manifest. On 18 March the Chinese government announced that it had checked all of the Chinese citizens on the aircraft and ruled out the possibility that any were potential hijackers.
Crew and cargo
Police searched the homes of the pilot and co-pilot, on suspicion that those in the cockpit had been responsible for the aircraft's disappearance. However, no evidence had emerged to support this theory. After the FBI reconstructed the deleted data from the pilot's home flight simulator, the Malaysian government spokesman indicated that "nothing sinister" had been found on it.
MAS has not disclosed its cargo manifest, as Malaysian police are conducting their own investigations. On 17 March, Malaysia Airlines chief executive, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, indicated only that the aircraft was carrying 3 to 4 tonnes/tons of mangosteens and said that nothing it transported was dangerous. Three days later, he also confirmed that potentially flammable batteries, identified as lithium-ion, were on board, adding that all cargo was "packed as recommended by the ICAO", checked several times, and deemed to meet regulations.
On 2 April Khalid Abu Bakar, Malaysia's Police Inspector-General, said that as part of its ongoing criminal investigation, more than 170 interviews had been conducted, including with family members of the pilots and crew. Khalid said that the provenance and destination of all cargo, including the mangosteens and in-flight meals, were being investigated to rule out sabotage as a cause.
Criticism and response
Public communication from Malaysian officials regarding the loss of the flight was initially beset with confusion.[h] The New York Times wrote that the Malaysian government and the airline released imprecise, incomplete, and sometimes inaccurate information, with civilian officials sometimes contradicting military leaders. Malaysian officials were also criticised after the persistent release of contradictory information, most notably regarding the last point and time of contact with the aircraft.
Vietnam temporarily scaled back its search operations after the country's Deputy Transport Minister cited a lack of communication from Malaysian officials despite requests for more information. China, through the official Xinhua News Agency, said that the Malaysian government ought to take charge and conduct the operation with greater transparency, echoed by the Chinese Foreign Ministry days later.
Questions and criticisms were raised by air force experts and the Malaysian opposition about the current state of Malaysia's air force and radar capabilities. Opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim said it was impossible and unacceptable that the country's advanced British radar system and military readiness had not been triggered by such a diverted flight.
On 14 March, Malaysia Airlines retired the MH370/MH371 flight number pair for the Kuala Lumpur–Beijing–Kuala Lumpur route, replacing them with MH318 and MH319 respectively.
On 25 March, Chinese president Xi Jinping said he was sending a special envoy to Kuala Lumpur to consult with the Malaysian government over the missing aircraft. The same day, around two hundred family members of the Chinese passengers protested outside the Malaysian embassy in Beijing. Relatives who had arrived in Kuala Lumpur after the announcement continued with their protesting, accusing Malaysia of hiding the truth and harbouring the murderer. They also wanted an apology for the Malaysian government's poor initial handling of the disaster and their "premature" conclusion of loss, drawn without physical evidence. An op-ed for China Daily said that Malaysia was not wholly to be blamed for its poor handling of such a "bizarre and unprecedented crisis", and appealed to Chinese people not to allow emotions to prevail over evidence and rationality. The Chinese ambassador to Malaysia rebuked the "radical and irresponsible opinions" of the Chinese relatives, and said that they "[did] not represent the views of Chinese people and the Chinese government". The ambassador also strongly criticised Western media for having "published false news, stoked conflict and even spread rumours" to the detriment of relatives and of Sino–Malaysian relations.
Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 conspiracy theories
Jump up^ MH is the IATA designator and MAS is the ICAO designator. The flight is also marketed as China Southern Airlines Flight 748 (CZ748) through a codeshare.
Jump up^ Initial reports on 8 March stated that contact had been lost at 02:40. This was changed to 01:30 by the Media Statement at 02:00 on 9 March and then to 01:20 by the Malaysian Director General of Civil Avation without comment or explanation.
Jump up^ Inmarsat stated that its conclusion had been based on a further analysis of the measurements of the Doppler shift of the "ping" transmissions. Although the company did not elaborate, notably, the Inmarsat-3 F1 satellite's orbit is inclined by 1.67 degrees, causing it to cross the equator twice a day. This motion could cause a difference between the Doppler shifts of northbound and southbound transmitters.
Jump up^ The aircraft is a Boeing 777-200ER (for Extended Range) model; Boeing assigns a unique customer code for each company that buys one of its aircraft, which is applied as an infix in the model number at the time the aircraft is built. The code for Malaysia Airlines is "H6", hence "777-2H6ER".
Jump up^ One passenger boarded with a Hong Kong passport.
Jump up^ The manifest released by Malaysia Airlines listed an Austrian and an Italian. These were subsequently identified as two Iranian nationals who boarded Flight 370 using stolen passports.
Jump up^ 38 passengers and 12 crew.
Jump up^ Examples:
* Malaysia Airlines' chief executive, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, initially said air traffic control was in contact with the aircraft two hours into the flight when in fact the last contact with air traffic control was less than an hour after takeoff.
* Malaysian authorities initially reported that four passengers used stolen passports to board the aircraft before settling on two: one Italian and one Austrian.
* Malaysia abruptly widened the search area to the west on 9 March, and only later explained that military radar had detected the aircraft turning back. This was later formally denied by Rodzali Daud.
* Malaysian authorities visited the homes of pilot Zaharie and co-pilot Fariq on 15 March, during which they took away a flight simulator belonging to Zaharie. Malaysian police chief Khalid Abu Bakar said this was the first police visit to those homes. On 17 March, the government contradicted this by saying police first visited the pilots' homes on the day following the flight's disappearance, although this had been previously denied.
* On 16 March, Malaysia's acting transport minister contradicted the prime minister's account on the timing of the final data and communications received. Najib Razak had said that the ACARS system was switched off at 01:07. On 17 March, Malaysian officials said that the system was switched off sometime between 01:07, time of the last ACARS transmission, and 01:37, time of the next expected transmission.
* Three days after saying that the aircraft was not transporting anything hazardous, Malaysia Airlines' chief executive Ahmad said that potentially dangerous lithium batteries were on board.
* MAS chief executive initially claimed that the last voice communication from the aircraft was, "all right, good night", with the lack of a call sign fuelling speculation that the flight may have been hijacked. Three weeks later Malaysian authorities published the transcript that indicated the last words were "Good night Malaysian three seven zero".
Jump up^ MacLeod, Calum; Winter, Michael; Gray, Allison (8 March 2014). "Beijing-bound flight from Malaysia missing". USA Today. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
Jump up^ DATO' AZHARUDDIN ABRUL RAHMAN. "PRESS CONFERENCE: MH370 10 MARCH 2014, 12:00 NOON". Department of Civil Aviation.
^ Jump up to:a b c d "Sunday, March 09, 02:00 AM MYT +0800 Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident – 6th Media Statement". Malaysia Airlines. scroll to bottom of page and select the last of the sub-web-pages. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
Jump up^ "Saturday, March 08, 10:30 AM MYT +0800 Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident – 3rd Media Statement". Malaysia Airlines. scroll to bottom of page and select the appropriate sub-web-pages. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
Jump up^ Neuman, Scott. "Search For Flight MH370 Reportedly Largest in History". The Two-way. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia Airlines MH370: Last communication revealed". BBC. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b c Hildebrandt, Amber (10 March 2014). Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: 'Mystery compounded by mystery'. CBC News.
^ Jump up to:a b Buncombe, Andrew; Withnall, Adam (10 March 2014)."Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: Oil slicks in South China Sea ‘not from missing jet’, officials say". The Independent.
Jump up^ Grudgings, Stuart. "Malaysia Airlines plane crashes in South China Sea with 239 people aboard: report". Retrieved 8 March 2014.
Jump up^ Tasnim Lokman (9 March 2014). "MISSING MH370: Indonesia helps in search for airliner". New Straits Times. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Number of countries in SAR operations increases to 26". The Star. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
Jump up^ Missing MH370: Search extended up to Kazakhstan, down to Indian Ocean. The Star, 15 March 2014
Jump up^ Missing MH370: Search extended up to Kazakhstan, down to Indian Ocean. The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 March 2014
^ Jump up to:a b "India Continues Search for MH370 as Malaysia Ends Hunt in South China Sea". The Wall Street Journal. 15 March 2014.
Jump up^ Branigan, Tania (24 March 2014). "Missing flight MH370 lost in southern Indian Ocean, says Malaysian PM". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysian prime minister: Missing flight MH370 ‘ended in Indian Ocean and no one on board survived’". Metro. UK. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
Jump up^ Sevastopulo, Demetri (24 March 2014). "Malaysia says data indicate MH370 crashed into the Indian Ocean". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b Murdoch, Lindsay (22 March 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370: Floating debris spotted by Chinese satellite image". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b McDonell, Stephen (23 March 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines plane: Chinese satellites spot new possible debris from MH370". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "BBC News, 22 March 2014". BBC. 1 January 1970.
^ Jump up to:a b c "Missing Malaysia flight MH370: French satellite images show possible 'debris field' of 122 objects in search area".The Independent. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Flight MH370: 'Objects spotted' in new search area". BBC News. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b c "Transcript of Press Conference April 9". JACC. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "International Panel To Look Into MH370 Incident – Hishammuddin". Bernama (29 March 2014)
^ Jump up to:a b Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 puts UN search agency's protocol to the test. South China Morning Post (29 March 2014) (subscription required)
^ Jump up to:a b "Malaysia Reorganizes Flight 370 Investigation, Appoints Independent Investigator". Frequent Business Traveler. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Cenciotti, David (11 March 2014). "What we know and what we don't about the mysterious Malaysia Airlines MH370 disappearance". The Aviationist. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
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Jump up^ Exclusive: Radar data suggests missing Malaysia plane deliberately flown way off course – sources. Reuters, 14 March 2014
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^ Jump up to:a b Daily Mail, "Was Malaysian co-pilot's last message to base a secret distress signal? Officials investigate possibility unusual sign-off may have indicated something was wrong"
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Jump up^ Paul Marks (11 March 2014), Malaysian plane sent out engine data before vanishing New Scientist.
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Jump up^ Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston to lead Joint Agency Coordination Centre. The Prime Minister of Australia, 30 March 2014
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*by g surach (16 March 2014). "Missing MH370: No way plane flew over Indian airspace undetected – Nation". The Star. Malaysia.
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Jump up^ "Behind jet's passenger list is rich human tapestry". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Jump up^ "No sign of Malaysia Airline wreckage; questions over stolen passports". CNN. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Loss of employees on Malaysia flight a blow, U.S. chipmaker says". Reuters. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia police probe flight engineer on missing MH370".The Straits Times. 17 March 2014.
Jump up^ Caregiver sacrifices time for family of passengers New Straits Times
Jump up^ "For Flight 370 Families, Every Day Is 'Torment' : Parallels". NPR. 20 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing MAS flight: MAS team arrives in Beijing". The Star. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Caregivers from Malaysia, Australia assigned to families of passengers onboard MH370". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing Malaysia jet may have veered off course". CNBC. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MISSING MH370: Families cling to faint hopes: psychologist". New Straits Times. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Jump up^ Rose, Adam (12 March 2014). "Malaysia Airlines says no reason to think crew caused jet's disappearance". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MAS cash aid snubbed by kin of Chinese aboard MH370".The Malay Mail. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Jump up^ Ip, Kelly (13 March 2014). "Families of missing accept 'comfort money'" The Standard
Jump up^ "Missing MAS flight: Captain piloting MH370 a Penang boy". The Straits Times. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Jump up^ Koswanage, Niluksi (9 March 2014). "Pilot of missing Malaysian flight an aviation tech geek". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MISSING MH370: Co-pilot family awaits for latest updates – Latest". New Straits Times. 8 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b Watkins, Tom (10 March 2014). "First officer on missing jet was transitioning to 777-200s". CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Jump up^ Malaysia Airlines Flight Vanishes, Three Americans on Board. ABC News, 7 March 2014
Jump up^ Vast waters hide clues in hunt for missing Malaysia Airlines flight. CNN, 9 March 2014
Jump up^ Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 370: See names, faces of passengers aboard doomed plane. Daily News (New York), 8 March 2014
Jump up^ Two Europeans listed on missing Malaysia flight were not on board. Reuters, 8 March 2014
Jump up^ RMAF chief: Recordings captured from radar indicate flight deviated from original route. The Star, 9 March 2014
Jump up^ INTERPOL confirms at least two stolen passports used by passengers on missing Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 were registered in its databases. INTERPOL, 9 March 2014
Jump up^ Malaysia Airlines MH370: Stolen passports 'no terror link'. BBC News, 11 March 2014
Jump up^ Exclusive: Radar data suggests missing Malaysia plane deliberately flown way off course – sources. Reuters, 12 March 2014
Jump up^ MH370 Malaysia Airlines: Anwar Ibrahim says government purposefully concealing information. The Daily Telegraph, 3 April 2014
^ Jump up to:a b Anwar, Zafira; Nambiar, Predeep (13 March 2014)."MISSING MH370: MAS changes flight number for KL-Beijing-KL flights". New Strait Times. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Two MILLION square miles to be searched, 26 countries involved – and still not a trace of Flight MH370: hunt for the missing plane stretches from Kazakhstan to Southern Ocean". Daily Mail. 17 March 2014.
Jump up^ MH370 possibly in one of two ‘corridors’, says PM. The Malay Mail, 15 March 2014
Jump up^ Nuke test watchdog shares data in search of missing Malaysia Airlines jet. The Voice of Russia, 15 March 2014
Jump up^ http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/world/asia/india-flight-370-missing-airplane.html?_r=0
Jump up^ "Search operation for Malaysian airlines aircraft" (PDF). Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA). 17 March 2014.
Jump up^ Prime minister Tony Abbott announces search planes being sent based on ‘new and credible information’ from satellite images. The Guardian, 20 March 2014
Jump up^ "Malaysia plane: Bad weather halts search for flight MH370". BBC. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
Jump up^ Austin, Henry (24 March 2014). "Missing Jet: 'Orange Rectangular Object' Spotted in Sea". NBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Flight MH370: 122 new objects spotted – Malaysia minister". BBC. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
Jump up^ MH370: Malaysia Following International Procedures On Information Disclosure. BERNAMA, 31 March 2014
Jump up^ Updated statement on Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370 issued 26/03/14. UK-AAIB, 26 March 2014
Jump up^ International panel to be set up . The Star, 29 March 2014
Jump up^ About the Joint Agency Coordination Centre. Joint Agency Coordination Centre, 30 March 2014
Jump up^ Angus Houston to lead new Joint Agency Coordination Center in search of missing flight. Xinhua, 30 March 2014
Jump up^ branigan, tania (5 April 2014). "MH370: Chinese patrol ship detects ping near suspected location of plane". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing plane search has 'best lead so far'". BBC. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing Malaysia plane: Search 'regains recorder signal'". BBC. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
Jump up^ "Boeing team to offer technical help to investigators".Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ Siva Govindasamy, Alwyn Scott and Tim Hepher (12 March 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines plane's legal limbo hampers probe". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
Jump up^ Serrano, Richard A. "FBI to investigate disappearance of a Malaysian Airlines jet." Los Angeles Times. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Jump up^ "FBI not in on Malaysia crash probe; other U.S. agencies to arrive Monday". Reuters. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
Jump up^ "New phase of search starts on both corridors". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ Matthew Weaver in London and Tom McCarthy. "MH370: Australia takes lead in Indian Ocean as search area expands – live". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia flight MH370: Search ships to verify signals". BBC. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Gander, Kashmira (5 April 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: Chinese patrol ship discovers pulse signal in southern Indian Ocean as plane spots white objects". The Independent. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Catherine E. Shoichet and Ray Sanchez (9 March 2014)."Plane bore painters, pilgrims, others from around the world". CNN. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
Jump up^ "INTERPOL confirms at least two stolen passports used by passengers on missing Malaysian Airlines flight 370 were registered in its databases". Interpol. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
^ Jump up to:a b Murdoch, Lindsay (10 March 2014). "Fake passports on Malaysia Airlines flight reveal flaw in airline safety". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
Jump up^ Keith Bradsher; Eric Schmitt (9 March 2014). "Passport Theft Adds to Mystery of Missing Malaysia Airlines Jet". The New York Times.
Jump up^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (10 March 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: Iranian Middleman Asked Thai Agent to Book Tickets on Stolen Passports". International Business Times (UK). Retrieved 11 March 2014.
Jump up^ "'There are no answers': Days later, no sign of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370". CNN. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MISSING MH370: Man with stolen passport on jet is asylum seeker – Latest". New Straits Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ Saeed Kamali Dehghan. "Iranians travelling on flight MH370 on forged passports 'not linked to terror'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
Jump up^ Simon Denyer, Robert Barnes and Chico Harlan (9 March 2014). "Four flew with false ID aboard Malaysia Airlines plane that vanished over South China Sea". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Jump up^ Chris Buckley and Keith Bradsher. "China Rules Out Terror Ties Among Citizens on Jet". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
Jump up^ BBC News. "Missing Malaysia Airlines plane 'deliberately diverted'". BBC. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
Jump up^ Barbara Starr, Chelsea J. Carter and Jim Clancy. "U.S. officials lean toward 'those in the cockpit' behind missing flight". CNN. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
Jump up^ Pierre Thomas and Josh Margolin. "FBI Finishes Probe into Malaysia Airlines Captain's Flight Simulator". ABC. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Moore, Andy. "Flight MH370: Chinese and Australian ships draw blank". BBC. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Was a small BOMB hidden inside MH370's cargo hold? AND WHY HASN'T M'SIA REVEALED THE CARGO MANIFEST?". Malaysia Chronicle. 19 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia's unwillingness to release the full cargo manifest from missing Flight MH370 will hamper the search effort".news.com.au. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Not just mangosteens on board, MH370 also carried lithium-ion batteries, says daily". The Malaysian Insider. 22 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia News | AsiaOne". News.asiaone.com. 18 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b Tomlinson, Simon (22 March 2014). "Missing jet WAS carrying highly flammable lithium batteries: CEO of Malaysian Airlines finally admits to dangerous cargo four days after DENYING it". Daily Mail. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing MH370 carried lithium ion batteries as cargo but not seen as 'dangerous'". The Straits Times. 21 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing MH370: Lithium ion batteries deemed non-dangerous goods". The Star Online. 22 March 2014.
Jump up^ Missing Jet was Carrying Potentially Flammable Batteries: CEO NBC News 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MH370 passengers "cleared" in four probe areas: Malaysian police". Channel NewsAsia. 11 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Missing plane MH370: Malaysia mystery 'may not be solved'". BBC. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b Murdoch, Lindsay (3 April 2014). "Flight MH370: Police investigate whether food on missing plane was poisoned".The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
Jump up^ Hodal, Kate (14 March 2014). "Flight MH370: a week of false leads and confusion in hunt for missing plane". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
^ Jump up to:a b "Missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 – a week of confusion". The Sydney Morning Herald. 14 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MH370: Further confusion over timing of last words" TV3 (New Zealand). 18 March 2014
Jump up^ Jamieson, Alastair (13 March 2014). "Officials Deny Engine Data Report From Missing MH370". NBC News.
Jump up^ Calder, Simon; Withnall, Adam (17 March 2014). "Missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370: Confusion deepens over ‘missing 30 minutes’ at heart of mystery engulfing stricken jet ". The Independent
Jump up^ Woodrow Bellamy III (19 March 2014). "Avionics Magazine :: Malaysian PM Clarifies MH370 Avionics Disablement". Aviationtoday.com.
Jump up^ "MH370: "All right, good night" came after system shut down". The Malaysian Times. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 co-pilot's last message was 'all right, good night' – video". The Guardian. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Last words transmitted from missing Malaysia Airlines plane were actually 'Good night, Malaysian three seven zero'".News.com.au. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
Jump up^ "New account of MH370 pilot's final words". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
Jump up^ "MH370: New account of cockpit last words".http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/. BBC. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
Jump up^ "Stolen Passports on Plane Not Seen as Terror Link". The New York Times. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
Jump up^ Denyer, Simon (12 March 2014). "Contradictory statements from Malaysia over missing airliner perplex, infuriate". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
Jump up^ Harlan, Chico (11 March 2014). "Malaysia Airlines plane may have veered wildly off course during flight, military says". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
Jump up^ "China appeals to Malaysia for search information". Associated Press. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
Jump up^ Malaysia Insider (8 July 2011). "MH370 throws spotlight on Malaysia's air force and radar capabilities". The Malaysian Insider.
Jump up^ Childs, Nick (1 January 1970). "Missing Malaysia plane: MH370 and the military gaps". BBC.
Jump up^ "Malaysia lets slip chance to intercept MH370".malaysiakini. Malaysiakini. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Henderson, Barney (3 April 2014). "MH370 Malaysia Airlines: Anwar Ibrahim says government purposefully concealing information". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ "China's Xi to send special envoy to Malaysia over missing plane". Yahoo! News. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
Jump up^ "MH370 passengers' relatives protest in China". Al Jazeera. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
Jump up^ "(Flight MH370) Message from Beijing: “Liars”". The Standard. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Branigan, Tania (30 March 2014). "Flight MH370: Chinese relatives demand apology from Malaysia". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Jump up^ Mei Xinyu, (31 March 2014). "Treat MH370 tragedy rationally". China Daily.
Jump up^ Jha, Supriya (3 April 2014). "Developments over Malaysian jet search: As it happened". Z News. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.
Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
Prime Minister of Malaysia Press Releases.
Malaysian Ministry of Transport: Press Statements and Briefings from the Prime Minister, Minister of Defence and acting Minister of Transport, Director General of the Department of Civil Aviation and Director General of Immigration. Includes transcripts of questions and answers not available on other external links.
Updates regarding MH370 from Malaysia Airlines: Media Statements.
Australian Maritime Safety Authority MH370 Search Media Kit Original Briefings and charts etc for the MH370 search in the Australian area. Includes MP3 and MP4 videos of Media Briefings. From 1 April 2014, communication regarding the MH370 search were issued by the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC). The AMSA site does however include all charts, including those after 1 April.
JACC: Media releases, press conference transcripts.
US Department of Defense - MH370: news & photos regarding MH370 from the U.S. Department of Defense (content is in the public domain)
Zenith Plateau as the final resting place for MH370. Deep Reef Explorer, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. last accessed April 9, 2014.