Wednesday, April 23, 2014
Monday, April 21, 2014
Toronto firefighters are bracing for some cuts that take effect today. According to the Toronto Professional Fire Fighters’ Association (TPFFA), four trucks will be taken out of service resulting in longer response times.
Budget cut closes Toronto fire hall, four trucks decommissioned Toronto firefighters are bracing for some cuts that take effect today.According to the Toronto Professional Fire Fighters’ Association (TPFFA), four trucks will be taken out of service resulting in longer response times.
“Starting Monday, it will take fire fighters longer to reach addresses in the event of fires, medical emergencies such as heart attacks and other emergencies such as vehicle accidents where victims may be trapped and require extrication, due to the decommissioning of four fire trucks,” said TPFFA President Ed Kennedy in amedia release.
84 firefighters will be affected by the decommissioned vehicles as well as the slated closure of Bloor West Village fire hall, Station 424.
Most of the positions will be eliminated through attrition while others will be relocated.
The cuts include two trucks from Scarborough and one each from Etobicoke and Bloor West Village.
Pardale-High Park councillor Sarah Doucette says the fire hall closure will impact the safety of the Runnymede community it serves.
“What it means is that seconds count. If there is a fire or a medical emergency in this neighbourhood a fire truck has to come from further a field, which means it takes a lot longer,” said Doucette.
City council voted to reduce the city’s fire fleet in order to save money in January.
Saturday, April 19, 2014
Opposition to the Conservative government's proposed Fair Elections Act (Bill C-23) is widespread and growing, according to a new poll by Angus Reid Global..
The More Canadians Know About The Fair Elections Act, The Less They Like It: Poll
Opposition to the Conservative government's proposed Fair Elections Act (Bill C-23) is widespread and growing, according to a new poll by Angus Reid Global.
The survey, conducted online from April 14-15 and surveying 1,505 Canadians, found that 59 per cent of Canadians who said they were very or fairly familiar with the proposed legislation were opposed to it, an increase of three points since Angus Reid last polled Canadians on the topic in February.
Nevertheless, a majority of Canadians (69 per cent) said they were not familiar with the bill, including 27 per cent who said they had not heard of it before Angus Reid polled them. That did decrease by 11 points from February, however, as the number of people saying they were very familiar with the bill increased by three points to eight per cent, and the proportion who said they were fairly familiar jumped by eight points to 23 per cent.
There was an important difference in support for Bill C-23 between those who knew something about it and those who said they didn't. And why not? It is called the "Fair Elections Act" after all. Whereas just 41 per cent of Canadians who said they were familiar with the proposed legislation supported it, 52 per cent who said they knew little to nothing about it were in favour.
One aspect of the legislation calling for stiffer penalties for those who break the law has universal support.
But opposition to "transferring the elections 'watchdog' responsibilities away from the Chief Electoral Officer" stood at 71 per cent among those familiar with the bill, an increase of 20 points since February.
Opposition to reducing Elections Canada's public information activities was also strong, at 72 per cent (up eight points).
Angus Reid also asked Canadians what they thought about removing "vouching" as an option for voters without ID, and on this the Conservatives appear to be onside with public opinion: 59 per cent of informed respondents thought it was a good idea. Angus Reid did not ask this question in February, so it is not possible to know if opinion has changed on this particular issue.
What has certainly not changed is the credibility problem Tories have on reforming the Elections Act.
Fully 65 per cent of all Canadians, whether they knew anything about the bill or not, said they did not trust "the Conservative government to ensure Canada has the best elections oversight possible." This was virtually unchanged since February.
And 72 per cent of Canadians familiar with the Fair Elections Act said that "the Conservative government is politically motivated" and "doesn't like Elections Canada." Only 28 per cent considered the bill a “genuine attempt to improve” elections in Canada.
This Angus Reid poll echoes the results of some other recent surveys, which have found that the more Canadians learn about the Fair Elections Act, the more unfair they consider it.
The Conservatives would be wise to heed at least some of these concerns.
Éric Grenier taps The Pulse of federal and regional politics for Huffington Post Canada readers every week. Grenier is the author of ThreeHundredEight.com, covering Canadian politics, polls and electoral projections.
Friday, April 18, 2014
On debate over proposed Fair Elections Act, Sound does not necessarily equal Fury Sustained news coverage & high-profile criticism don’t change opinions of those unfamiliar with the legislation
On debate over proposed Fair Elections Act, Sound does not necessarily equal FurySustained news coverage & high-profile criticism don’t change opinions of those unfamiliar with the legislation
April 17, 2014 – The latest Angus Reid Global poll on changes to the Elections Act proposed by the Harper government shows weeks of media headlines and disapproval from high-profile experts have done little to sway general public opinion since ARG first canvassed the issue in February.
Support for the proposed legislation remains highest among those who aren’t aware of the issue. Overall, Canadians are evenly split on the changes: Half (49%) support and half (51%) oppose. This represents a statistically insignificant two-point change from February (51% supported, 49% opposed).
Two waves of polling do show however that awareness is slowly growing and that opposition among those who are aware of the changes is also growing. Further, it appears Canadians continue to be more uncomfortable about the motivations of the Harper government in introducing the legislation than they are about the contents of the legislation itself.
One-third (31%) of Canadian adults surveyed say they are either very or fairly familiar with proposed changes concerning Elections Canada. This represents an 11 point increase in awareness over earlier this year. The number of people (42%) who say they’ve heard of the issue but aren’t familiar with it is unchanged, while 27 per cent now say they hadn’t heard about the issue at all, a decrease of 11 points since February.
When it comes to awareness and political affiliation, awareness is still highest and growing among past Liberal and NDP voters (40% and 38% respectively) followed by past Conservative voters (32%).
Among those who are familiar with the contents of the Fair Elections Act, 41 per cent now say they support it while 59 per cent are opposed, a slight change from February (44% supported, 56% opposed). Among who have heard about the issue but aren’t familiar, or haven’t heard about it at all, support rises to 52 per cent, while 48 per cent say they’re opposed. These levels are virtually unchanged from earlier this year.
Levels of awareness have some effect on support or opposition to individual changes proposed in the legislation: 90 per cent of all Canadians surveyed support imposing tougher penalties on those who break election rules, such as robocallers (unchanged since February.) This is highest among those most aware (96%) but still significant among those who aren’t (88%).
Overall, 62 per cent (compared to 59% in February) are against reducing Elections Canada’s public information activities. Among those familiar with the legislation this rises to 72 per cent – decreasing to 57 per cent among those unfamiliar.
There is a noticeable change from earlier this year on the issue of transferring election watchdog responsibilities away from the Chief Electoral Officer. In the first wave of polling on this issue, 37 per cent of all Canadians said they were against the proposed move, while 56 per cent are against it now.
On the issue of vouching, nearly three-quarters of all Canadians surveyed say they support eliminating the option of having someone vouch for a would-be voter at a polling station. This support drops to 59 per cent among those familiar with the legislation and increases to 78 per cent among those who don’t know much or anything about it.
Another key indicator of public opinion on this issue that remains consistent from earlier this year includes the notable lack of trust Canadians hold for the Conservative government under Prime Minister Stephen Harper when it comes to ensuring the best possible elections oversight. These levels are unchanged since February, with 35 per cent saying they trust the government and 65 per cent saying they don’t. This rises to slightly 68 per cent among those who are familiar with the issue. Trust remains highest among past Conservative voters (70%) compared to past Liberal and NDP voters (20% and 16% respectively).
Also unchanged is skepticism around the motivations for the proposed legislation. The most recent findings continue to show nearly two-thirds (63% in April, 62% in February) of Canadians say the government’s changes are motivated by politics and a dislike of Elections Canada. This rises to 72 per cent among those aware of the issue. Conversely, 37 per cent of all respondents feel the Conservatives are making a genuine attempt to improve the rules and administration of Canada’s elections. This drops to 28 per cent among those most aware. (February results were 38% and 31% respectively.)
Opinions harden along party lines:
Perhaps unsurprisingly, past Conservative Party voters support the Harper government’s proposed changes to the Elections Act by a ratio of more than 2:1 over past Liberal and NDP voters. Among those who cast a ballot for the CPC in 2011, 71 back the Fair Elections Act, compared to 35 per cent of Liberal and NDP voters.
Full Report, Detailed Tables and Methodology
Wednesday, April 16, 2014
Airbus A350 XWB
A350-941 F-WXWB during its maiden flight on 14 June 2013.
Role Wide-body jet airliner
National origin Multi-national
First flight 14 June 2013
Introduction Expected Q4 2014 (-900), mid-2016 (-800) to mid-2017 (-1000)
Status Under development, early production
Number built 4
Unit cost A350-800: US$260.9 million,
A350-900: US$295.2M, ,
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, two-engined wide-body jet airliners developed by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus with both fuselage and wing structures made primarily of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. It can carry 250 to 350 passengers in a typical three-class seating layout, or maximum seating of 440 to 550 passengers, depending on variant.
The A350 was originally conceived in 2004 as a largely new design, but with a fuselage based on the A330. This was rejected by some prospective customers. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft and renamed it the A350 XWB (extra wide body). Airbus stated that it will be more fuel-efficient and have operating costs up to 8% lower than the competing Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
The launch customer for the A350 is Qatar Airways, which ordered 80 aircraft of all three variants. Development costs are projected to be €12 billion (US$15 billion or £10 billion). The airliner is scheduled to enter airline service in mid-2014. As of December 2013, Airbus has received orders for 812 aircraft from 39 customers around the globe. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 at Toulouse-Blagnac Airport, France.
1.1 Early designs
1.2 Redesign and launch
1.3 Design phase
1.4 Production and testing
2.4 Cockpit and avionics
2.6 Fuel and hydraulic systems
4 Orders and deliveries
6 See also
8 External links
Airbus initially rejected Boeing's claim that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would make it a serious threat to the Airbus A330, stating that the 787 was just a reaction to the A330, and that no response was needed. When airlines pushed Airbus to provide a competitor, Airbus initially proposed the A330-200Lite, a simple derivative of the A330, which would feature improved aerodynamics and engines similar to those on the 787. The company planned to announce this version at the 2004 Farnborough Airshow, but did not proceed.
On 16 September 2004, then-Airbus president and CEO Noël Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project during a private meeting with prospective customers. Forgeard did not give a project name, and he did not state whether it would be an entirely new design or a modification of an existing product. The airlines were not satisfied, and Airbus committed €4 billion to a new airliner design. The original version of the A350 superficially resembled the A330 due to its common fuselage cross-section and assembly. A new wing, engines and a horizontal stabiliser were to be coupled with new composite materials and production methods applied to the fuselage to make the A350 an almost all-new aircraft. On 10 December 2004, the boards of EADS and BAE Systems, then the shareholders of Airbus, gave Airbus an "authorisation to offer (ATO)", and formally named it the A350.
On 13 June 2005 at the Paris Air Show, Middle Eastern carrier Qatar Airways announced that they had placed an order for 60 A350s. In September 2006 the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with General Electric to launch the GEnx-1A-72 for the aircraft. Emirates sought a more improved design and decided against ordering the initial version of the A350, but has since ordered A350 XWBs.
On 6 October 2005, full industrial launch of the programme was announced with an estimated development cost of around €3.5 billion. This version of the A350 was planned to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft derived from the design of the existing A330. Under this plan, the A350 would have modified wings and new engines, while sharing the same fuselage cross-section as its predecessor. As a result of a controversial design, the fuselage was to consist primarily of Al-Li, rather than the carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) fuselage on the 787. It was to see entry in two versions: the A350-800 capable of flying 8,800 nmi (16,300 km) with typical passenger capacity of 253 in 3-class configuration and the 300-seat (3-class) A350-900 with 7,500 nmi (13,900 km) range. It was designed to be a direct competitor to the 787-9, and 777-200ER.
Airbus faced almost immediate criticism on the A350 project from the heads of two of their largest customers, International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) and GE Capital Aviation Services (GECAS). On 28 March 2006, in the presence of hundreds of top airline executives, ILFC President Steven F. Udvar-Hazy lambasted Airbus' strategy in bringing to market what they saw as "a Band-aid reaction to the 787", a sentiment that was echoed by GECAS president Henry Hubschman. Udvar-Hazy called on Airbus to bring a clean-sheet design to the table, or risk losing most of the market to Boeing. Several days later Chew Choon Seng, then CEO of Singapore Airlines (SIA), made a similar comment: "Having gone through the trouble of designing a new wing, tail, cockpit" and adding advanced new materials, Airbus "should have gone the whole hog and designed a new fuselage." At the time, SIA was reviewing bids for the 787 and A350. Airbus responded by stating they were considering improvements for the A350 to satisfy customer demands. At the same time, Airbus' then-CEO Gustav Humbert suggested that there would be no quick fixes: "Our strategy isn't driven by the needs of the next one or two campaigns, but rather by a long-term view of the market and our ability to deliver on our promises."
Redesign and launch
On 14 July 2006, during the Farnborough Airshow, Airbus announced that the redesigned aircraft would be called A350 XWB (Xtra-Wide-Body). There was some previous speculation that the revised aircraft would be called the Airbus A370 or A280, with Airbus going as far as accidentally publishing an advertisement referring to the model as the "A280" on the Financial Times's website. Within four days, Airbus achieved a sale of the re-designed A350 when Singapore Airlines announced an agreement to order 20 A350XWBs with options for another 20 A350XWBs. CEO Chew Choon Seng said that "it is heartening that Airbus has listened to customer airlines and has come up with a totally new design for the A350."
The proposed new A350 was a new design also including a wider fuselage cross-section. The new A350 fuselage allows seating arrangements ranging from an 8-abreast low-density premium economy layout to a 10-abreast high-density seating configuration, allowing for a maximum seating capacity of 440–550 depending on variant. The A330 and previous iterations of the A350 would only be able to accommodate eight passengers per row in normal configurations. The 787 can accommodate 8 or 9 passengers per row, while the 777 typically accommodates nine passengers per row, with some airlines using a ten-abreast seating layout. The A350 cabin is 12.7 cm (5.0 in) wider at the eye level of a seated passenger than the competing 787, and 28 cm (11 in) narrower than the Boeing 777, its other competitor. (See Wide-body aircraft for a comparison of cabin widths and seating.) All A350 passenger models will have a range of at least 8,000 nmi (15,000 km).
On 1 December 2006 the Airbus board of directors approved the industrial launch of the A350-800, −900 and −1000 variants. The delayed decision on formal launch was a result of delays of the Airbus A380 and discussions about how the development would be funded. EADS CEO Thomas Enders stated that the A350 programme was not a certainty, citing EADS/Airbus' stretched resources. However, it was decided programme costs are to be borne mainly from cash-flow. First delivery for the −900 was scheduled for mid-2013, with the −800 and −1000 following on, respectively, 12 and 24 months later. At a 4 December 2006 press conference, a few new technical details of the A350 XWB design were revealed, but no new customers were identified. John Leahyindicated existing A350 contracts were under re-negotiation due to increases in prices compared to the original A350s contracted. On 4 January 2007, Airbus announced that Pegasus Aviation Finance Company had placed the first firm order for the A350 XWB with an order for two aircraft.
The change to the XWB design imposed a two-year delay into the original timetable and almost doubled development costs from US$5.3 billion to approximately US$10 billion (€5.5 billion to €9.7 billion). The total development cost for the A350 was estimated at US$15 billion by Reuters (€12 billion or £10 billion). The original mid-2013 delivery date of the A350 changed, as longer than anticipated development activities for the aircraft forced Airbus to delay the final assembly and first flight of the aircraft to the third quarter of 2012 and second quarter of 2013 respectively. As such, flight testing will be compressed from the original 15 months to a 12-month schedule. A350 programme chief Didier Evrard stressed that the delays only affect the A350-900 and that the A350-800 and A350-1000 schedules remain unchanged.
Illustration of Airbus A350 XWB concept in Etihad Airways livery
Airbus suggested Boeing's use of composite materials for the 787 fuselage was premature, and that the new A350 XWB will feature large carbon fibre panels for the main fuselage skin. After facing criticism for maintenance costs, Airbus confirmed in early September 2007 the adoption of composite fuselage frames for the aircraft structure. The composite frames will feature aluminium strips to ensure the electrical continuity of the fuselage (for dissipating lightning strikes). Airbus will use a full mock up fuselage to develop the wiring, a different approach from the A380, on which the wiring was all done on computers.
A critical component of the all-new airliner are the engines. Rather than the bleedless configuration used on the Boeing 787, Airbus has confirmed that it will further develop a full bleed air system on the engines. Rolls-Royce has agreed with Airbus to supply a new variant of the Trent engine for the A350 XWB, currently called the Trent XWB. After the low-speed wind tunnel test, Airbus froze the static thrust at sea level for all three proposed variants in the 330–420 kN (74,000–94,000 lbf) range. In June 2007, Rolls-Royce announced that it had signed its biggest ever contract with Qatar Airways for the Trent XWB to power 80 A350 XWBs on order from Airbus worth $5.6 billion at list prices.
General Electric (GE) has stated it will not offer the GP7000 engine on the aircraft, and that previous contracts for the GEnx on the original A350 did not apply to the XWB. Engine Alliance partner Pratt & Whitney seems to be at odds with GE on this, publicly stating that it is looking at an advanced derivative of the GP7000. In April 2007, Airbus former chief executive Louis Gallois held face-to-face talks with senior GE management over developing a new variant of the GEnx engine for the A350 XWB. In June 2007, Airbus' chief operating officer John Leahy indicated that the A350 XWB will not feature the GEnx engine, saying that Airbus wants GE to offer a more efficient version for the new Airbus airliner. Since then, largest GE engines operators Emirates, US Airways, Hawaiian Airlines and ILFC have selected the Trent XWB for their A350 orders. In May 2009, GE said that if it reaches a deal with Airbus to offer the current 787-optimised GEnx for the A350, it will only power the −800 and −900 variants. GE believes it can offer a product that outperforms the Trent 1000 and Trent XWB, but has been reluctant to support an airframe that competes directly with its GE90-115B-powered 777 variants.
In January 2008, French-based Thales Group won the US$2.9 billion (€2 billion) 20-year contract to supply avionics and navigation equipment for the A350 XWB. Thales competed against Honeywell and Rockwell Collins for the flight deck supply contract. US-based Rockwell Collins and Moog Inc were chosen to supply the horizontal stabiliser actuator and primary flight control actuation, respectively. The flight management system will include several new safety features.
Regarding cabin ergonomics and entertainment, in 2006 Airbus had signed a firm contract with BMW for development of an interior concept for the original A350. On 4 February 2010, Airbus signed a contract with Panasonic Avionics Corporation to deliver in-flight entertainment and communication (IFEC) systems for the Airbus A350 XWB.
Production and testing
The A350 XWB production programme sees extensive international collaboration and investments in new facilities. According to Flight Global, Airbus constructed 10 new factories in Western Europe and the US, with extensions carried out on 3 further sites. Among the new buildings was a £570 million (US$760 million or €745 million) composite facility in Broughton, Wales, which would be responsible for the wings. In June 2009, the National Assembly for Wales announced provision of a £28 million grant to provide a training centre, production jobs and money toward the new production centre. Another new construction facility was the composite rudder plant in China, which was opened in early 2011.
Airbus planned to introduce new techniques and procedures to cut assembly time in half. Airbus manufactured the first structural component in December 2009. Production of the first fuselage barrel began in late 2010 at its production plant in Illescas, Spain. Construction of the first A350-900 centre wingbox was set to start in August 2010.
The flight-test programme of the Rolls-Royce Trent XWB began using the A380 development aircraft in early 2011, ahead of engine certification at the end of 2011. The first engine test on the Trent was made in June 2010. The forward fuselage of the first A350 aircraft was delivered to the factory on 29 December 2011. Final assembly of the first A350 static test model was started on 5 April 2012. Final assembly of the first flight-test A350 was completed in December 2012.
In June 2011, the A350-900 was scheduled to enter service in the first half of 2014, with the −800 to enter service in mid-2016, and the −1000 in 2017. In July 2012, Airbus delayed the −900's entry date by three months into the second half of 2014.
On 2 June 2013, Airbus powered up the Rolls Royce Trent XWB engines on the A350 aircraft for the first time. Airbus also confirmed that flight test programme is to last 12 months and use five test aircraft. The A350's maiden flight took place on 14 June 2013 from the Toulouse-Blagnac Airport, near the company's aircraft delivery center. Airbus' chief test pilot said, "it just seemed really happy in the air" and that "all the things we were testing had no major issues at all."
Launch customer Qatar Airways is to receive its first aircraft in the second half of 2014.
In September 2007, Airbus rolled out new design advances to a gathering of 100 representatives from existing and potential XWB customers. The A350 XWB will be built on the technologies developed for Airbus A380 and will have a similar cockpit and fly-by-wiresystems layout. The A350 XWB will be made out of 53% composites, 19% Al/Al-Li, 14% titanium, 6% steel and 8% miscellaneous. This compares to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, which consists of 50% composites, 20% aluminium, 15% titanium, 10% steel and 5% other. October 2008 was the Airbus internal goal to freeze the design and Airbus expects 10% lower airframe maintenance cost and 14% lower empty seat weight than competing aircraft.
Airbus says that the new design provides a better cabin atmosphere with 20% humidity, a typical cabin altitude at or below 6,000 ft (1,800 m) and an airflow management system that adapts cabin airflow to passenger load with draught-free air circulation. Airbus is aiming to certify the A350 with 350-minute ETOPS capability on entry into service, and reach 420 min ETOPS capability later.
The new XWB fuselage will have a constant width from door 1 to door 4, unlike previous Airbus aircraft, to provide maximum usable volume. The double-lobe (ovoid) fuselage cross-section will have a maximum outer diameter of 5.97 m (19.6 ft), compared to 5.64 m (18.5 ft) for the A330/A340. The cabin's internal diameter will be 5.61 m (18.4 ft) wide at armrest level compared with 5.49 m (18.0 ft) in the Boeing 787 and 5.87 m (19.3 ft) in the Boeing 777. It allows for an eight-abreast 2–4–2 arrangement in a premium economy layout, with the seats being 49.5 cm (19.5 in) wide between 5 cm (2.0 in) wide arm rests. Airbus says that the seat width will be 1.3 cm (0.5 in) greater than a 787 seat in the equivalent configuration. In the nine-abreast, 3–3–3 standard economy layout, the XWB's seat width will be 45 cm (18 in) which will be 1.78 cm (0.7 in) wider than the equivalent seat layout for the 787. However, the current 777 and future derivatives, have 1.27 cm (0.5 in) greater seat width than the A350 in a nine-abreast configuration. The upcoming 777X in a 10-abreast configuration is to have a greater seat width of 44.45 cm (17.5 in) due to its wider interior cabin. The 10-abreast seating on the A350 is similar to a 9-abreast configuration on the A330, with a seat width of 41.7 cm (16.4 in).Overall, Airbus promises passengers more headroom, larger overhead storage space and wider panoramic windows than current Airbus models.
The A350 will feature new composite wings with a wingspan that is common to the three proposed variants. With an area of 443 m2 (4,770 sq ft) it will be the largest wing ever produced for a single-deck widebody aircraft. The wingspan of 64.8 m (213 ft) is 4.5 m (15 ft) greater than that of the A330. This is the same span as that of the longer range variants of the Boeing 777, which have slightly less area. The wing tip will not have Airbus' traditional wingtip fences, but instead will curve upwards over the final 4.4 metres (14 ft) in a "sabre-like" shape. The new wing will have a 31.9° sweep angle, helping to increase typical cruise speed to Mach 0.85 and maximum operating speed to Mach 0.89. The A350-1000 have a wing design with about a 4% increase in surface area.
A new trailing-edge high-lift system has been adopted with an advanced dropped-hinge flap (similar to that of the A380), which permits the gap between the trailing edge and the flap to be closed with the spoiler. The manufacturer has extensively used computational fluid dynamics and also carried out more than 4,000 hours of low- and high-speed windtunnel testing to refine the aerodynamic design, achieving the final configuration of wing and winglet on the "Maturity Gate 5" on 17 December 2008.
The wings are produced in the new £400M/46,000 square metres (500,000 sq ft) North Factory at Airbus Broughton, employing 650 workers, in a specialist facility constructed with £29M of support from the Welsh Assembly Government.
A350 XWB new nose and general arrangement inside forward fuselage
The XWB's nose section will adopt a configuration derived from the A380 with a forward-mounted nosegear bay and a six-panel flightdeck windscreen. This differs substantially from the four-window arrangement in the original design. The new nose will improve aerodynamics and enable overhead crew rest areas to be installed further forward and eliminate any encroachment in the passenger cabin. The new windscreen has been revised to improve vision by reducing the width of the centre post. The upper shell radius of the nose section has been increased. The nose is likely to be constructed from aluminium but Airbus is currently running trade-off studies considering a one-piece carbon fibre structure. According to Gordon McConnell, A350 Chief Engineer, a carbon fibre structure would need titanium reinforcements for birdstrike protection, thus the aluminium structure is the best cost-wise.
Cockpit and avionics
The revised design of the cockpit dropped the A380-sized display and adopted 38 cm (15 in) LCD screens. The new six-screen configuration will have two central displays mounted one above the other (the lower one above thethrust levers) and a single (for each pilot) primary flight/navigation display, with an adjacent on-board information system screen. Airbus says the new cockpit will allow advances in navigation technology to be placed on the displays in the future plus flexibility and capacity to upload new software and to combine data from multiple sources and sensors for flight management and aircraft systems control. The A350 XWB will also feature a head-up display.
The avionics will be a further development of the integrated modular avionics (IMA) concept found on the A380. The A350's IMA will manage up to 40 functions (versus 23 functions for the A380) such as undercarriage, fuel, pneumatics, cabin environmental systems, and fire detection. Airbus says benefits will include reduced maintenance and lower weight because IMA replaces multiple processors and LRUs with around 50% fewer standard computer modules known as line-replaceable modules. The IMA runs on a 100-Mbit/s network based on the avionics full-duplex (AFDX) standard, already employed in the A380 instead of the architecture used on the A330/A340.
The Trent XWB family has two basic engines to power the three A350 variants. The baseline 370 kN (83,000 lbf) thrust version for the A350-900 will be derated to 330 kN (74,000 lbf) and 350 kN (79,000 lbf) for the −800, while an upgraded 432 kN (97,000 lbf) thrust version will power the A350-1000. The higher-thrust version will have some modifications to the fan module—it will be the same diameter but will run slightly faster and have a new fan blade design—and run at increased temperatures allowed by new materials technologies from Rolls-Royce's research. The basic 248 t MTOW −800 will be offered with a 330 kN (74,000 lbf) sea-level-thrust rating, while the 279 t MTOW option will have 350 kN (79,000 lbf) thrust. Airbus also plans to offer a 'hot and high' rating option for Middle Eastern launching customers Qatar Airways, Emirates, and Etihad. This option has an increased thrust of 350 kN (79,000 lbf) at higher altitudes and temperatures.
The Trent XWB will feature a 300-centimetre (118 in) fan diameter and the design will be based on the advanced developments of the Trent 900 (Airbus A380) and Trent 1000 (Boeing 787). The Trent XWB may also benefit from the next-generation reduced acoustic mode scattering engine duct system (RAMSES), which is a noise-dampening engine nacelle intake and a carry-on design of the Airbus's "zero splice" intake liner developed for the A380. Engine thrust-reversers and nacelles will be supplied by US-based Goodrich Corporation.
The A350 XWB will feature a 1,268 kW (1,700 shp) Honeywell HGT1700 auxiliary power unit, which has 10% greater power density than the previous generation of Honeywell's 331 APU family. Honeywell will also supply the air management system: the bleed air, environmental control, cabin pressure control and supplemental cooling systems. The ram-air turbine will be supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand and will be located in the lower surface of the fuselage. The generator requirement for the ram air turbine is 100 kVAcompared to 150 kVA for the A380.
In light of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems, in February 2013 Airbus decided to revert from Lithium-ion to the proven Nickel-cadmium technology although the flight test programme will continue with the Lithium-Ion battery systems.
Fuel and hydraulic systems
Parker Hannifin will supply the complete fuel package: inerting system, fuel measurement and management systems, mechanical equipment and fuel pumps. The fuel tank inerting system will feature air-separation modules to generate nitrogen-enriched air that will be used to reduce the flammability of fuel vapour in the tanks.
Parker will also provide hydraulic power generation and distribution system: reservoirs, manifolds, accumulators, thermal control, isolation, software and new engine- and electric motor-driven pump designs. Parker estimates the contracts will generate more than US$2 billion (€1.5 billion or £1 billion) in revenues over the life of the programme.
Mock-up of the A350 nose gear at ILA 2012
Airbus adopted a new philosophy for the attachment of the A350s main undercarriage as part of the switch to a composite wing structure. Each main undercarriage leg is attached to the rear wing spar forward and to a gear beam aft, which itself is attached to the wing and the fuselage. To help reduce the loads further into the wing, a double side-stay configuration has been adopted. This solution resembles the design of the Vickers VC10.
Airbus devised a three-pronged main undercarriage design philosophy encompassing both four- and six-wheel bogies to ensure it can keep the pavement loading within limits. The A350-800 and A350-900 will both have four-wheel bogies, although the −800's will be slightly shorter to save weight. Both will fit in the same 4.1 m (13 ft) long bay. The proposed higher weight variant, the A350-1000 (and the A350-900R, which is being proposed to British Airways, with −900 size but with sufficient fuel capacity to allow nonstop London-Sydney flights) will use a six-wheel bogey, with a 4.7 m (15 ft) undercarriage bay. French-based Messier-Dowty will provide the main undercarriage for the −800 and −900 variant, and UTC Aerospace Systems will supply the −1000 variant. The nose gear will be supplied by Liebherr-Aerospace.
There are three variants of the A350, and all were launched in 2006. In July 2012, the A350-900 is scheduled to enter service in the second half of 2014; then the −800 in mid-2016, and −1000 in 2017. All variants are also to be offered as corporate jets by wholly owned subsidiary Airbus Executive and Private Aviation.
The A350-800 will seat 270 passengers in a 3-class with a 9-abreast layout. It will have a range of 15,400 km (8,300 nmi). It is designed to compete with the Boeing 787-9 and to directly replace the Airbus A330-200. In January 2010 Airbus announced that the −800 would be developed as a simple shrink of the −900, incorporating minor changes to the systems and structure and share more hardware with the −900 rather than as an optimised variant as was previously planned. This increased commonality will allow a higher maximum takeoff weight, which will increase the range (or payload) of the A350-800 compared to initial plans. The change will increase fuel burn by "a few per cent", according to the programme's marketing head, Sophie Pendaries.
The −800's fuselage is 10 frames shorter (six forward and four aft) than the −900 aircraft. The baseline −800 will be offered with an MTOW of 248 t (547,000 lb), MLW of 190 t (420,000 lb), MZFW of 178 t (392,000 lb), and 330 kN (74,000 lbf) thrust engines. An optional 11-tonne (24,000 lb) increase in MTOW, to 259 t (571,000 lb) with a corresponding increase of MZFW to 181 t (399,000 lb), MLW to 193 t (425,000 lb), and a higher thrust 370 kN (83,000 lbf) engine (common with −900 engine thrust) was announced by Airbus in April 2010 to be made available for customers as an option. While the increased weights compensate for the increased empty weight of the aircraft and associated minor fuel burn penalty due to maintaining commonality with −900, it also resulted in an increase in the aircraft maximum structural payload capability by 3 t (6,600 lb), or 459 km (248 nmi) of additional range. As development continues, Airbus plans to decrease structural weight in the −800, which should be around airframe 20.
In a bid to save on development and production costs, Airbus has recently encouraged those customers who have ordered the −800 variant to upgrade to the more popular −900. While many customers have changed their orders, a number are yet to be convinced of the benefits.
The A350-900 is the first A350 model and seats 314 passengers in a 3-class cabin 9-abreast layout. It has a standard design range target of 15,000 km (8,100 nmi). Airbus says that the A350-900 will have a decrease of 16% MWE per seat, a 30% decrease in block fuel per seat and 25% better cash operating cost than the Boeing 777-200ER. The −900 is designed to compete with the Boeing 777-200ER and replace the Airbus A340-300.
The −900R variant has been proposed but not yet launched. It would feature the higher engine thrust, strengthened structure and undercarriage of the −1000. Range of the A350-900R was estimated to 17,600 km (9,500 nmi), which would be boosted to about 19,100 km (10,315 nmi) by these design improvements to compete with the Boeing 777-200LR and be capable of non-stop flight from London-Heathrow to Auckland. The −900F freighter variant has also been proposed.
Aviation Week reported in July 2013 that Airbus has been discussing with airlines a possible −900 Regional version. This version would be for airlines that fly short to medium routes that do not need the extra range, maximum fuel capacity and weight of the baseline A350-900. Etihad Airways and Aer Lingus have firmly expressed their interest in the regional variant.
The A350-1000 has an 11-frame stretch over the −900 and will enter service after the −800. It is the largest variant of the A350 family and will seat 350 passengers in a 3-class cabin 9-abreast layout. It will have a range of 15,600 km (8,400 nmi). It is designed to replace Airbus' A340-600 and compete with the Boeing 777-300ER.
The A350-1000 will feature a slightly larger wing than the −800/900 models; a trailing-edge extension increasing its area by 4%. This will extend the high-lift devices and the ailerons, making the chord bigger by around 400 mm, optimising flap lift performance as well as cruise performance. These and other engineering upgrades are necessary so that the −1000 model does not suffer a reduction in range.
Orders and deliveries
Main article: List of Airbus A350 XWB orders
(cumulative by year)
As of March 2014
As of March 2014, 40 different customers had placed 824 firm orders for the A350 XWB.
Airbus A350 firm ordersA350-800 A350-900 A350-1000 Total orders
34 589 189 812
Source: Airbus orders data as of March 2014
Orders and deliveries 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Net orders 20 330 133 22 78 −28 27 239 0 812
Deliveries – – – – – – – – – –
Source: Airbus orders data as of March 2014
Specifications are preliminary until design is finished.
Cockpit crew Two
Seating, typical 276 (3-class)
440 (maximum) 315 (3-class)
475 (maximum) – 369 (3-class)
Overall length 60.54 m (198.6 ft) 66.89 m (219.5 ft) 73.88 m (242.4 ft)
Wingspan 64.8 m (213 ft)
Wing area 443 m2 (4,770 sq ft) ~460 m2 (5,000 sq ft)
Wing sweepback 31.9°
Overall height 17.05 m (55.9 ft)
Fuselage width 5.96 m (19.6 ft)
Fuselage height 6.09 m (20.0 ft)
Cabin width 5.61 m (18.4 ft)
Maximum takeoff weight 259 t (571,000 lb) 268 t (591,000 lb) 298 t (657,000 lb) 308 t (679,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight 193 t (425,000 lb) 205 t (452,000 lb) 233 t (514,000 lb)
Maximum zero fuel weight 181 t (399,000 lb) 192 t (423,000 lb) 220 t (485,000 lb)
Manufacturer's empty weight 115.7 t (255,100 lb)
Maximum cargo capacity 28 LD3 or 9 pallets 36 LD3 or 11 pallets 90 t (198,000 lb) 44 LD3 or 14 pallets
Cruise speed Mach 0.85 (903 km/h, 561 mph, 487 knots, at 40,000 ft or 12.19 km)
Maximum cruise speed Mach 0.89 (945 km/h, 587 mph, 510 knots, at 40,000 ft or 12.19 km)
(with passengers and baggage) 15,300 km (8,260 nmi) 14,350 km (7,750 nmi) 19,100 km (10,300 nmi) 9,250 km (4,990 nmi)
Maximum cargo payload 14,800 km (7,990 nmi)
Maximum fuel capacity 129,000 l (34,100 US gal) 138,000 l (36,500 US gal) 156,000 l (41,200 US gal)
Service ceiling 43,100 ft (13,100 m)
Engines (2×) RR Trent XWB
Maximum thrust capability 351 kN (79,000 lbf) 374 kN (84,000 lbf) 414 kN (93,000 lbf) 431 kN (97,000 lbf)
Sources: Airbus, Flight Global
Competition between Airbus and BoeingRelated development
Airbus A380Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Boeing 787 DreamlinerRelated lists
List of civil aircraft
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Airbus A350 (category)
External imagesAirbus A350 XWB Cutaway
Airbus A350 XWB Cutaway fromFlightglobal.com
A350 page on the Airbus site
Airbus A350 XWB site