Thursday, December 17, 2015

Toronto East Just Got $50 Million Stronger:




Wednesday, December 2, 2015 Toronto East Just Got $50 Million Stronger:Future Generations to Benefit from the Largest Donation to a Canadian Community Hospital TORONTO - Toronto East General Hospital and the Toronto East General Hospital Foundation Boards of Directors are thrilled to announce a historic $50 million gift that will transform the delivery of health care for some of the highest needs residents in Toronto. This unprecedented donation – the largest of its kind to a Canadian community hospital- is a gift from Myron and Berna Garron in memory of their son Michael, who was born at the hospital in 1962. Sadly, Michael died at the age of 13 from a rare soft tissue cancer. Thanks to this gift, we will be able to strengthen the exemplary care our staff provides at the bedside. And to recognize the enormity of this donation, we will rename ourselves the Toronto East Health Network and recognize this transformational gift by calling our main site the Michael Garron Hospital. Our new name, the Toronto East Health Network (TEHN), accurately reflects the numerous partnerships and work we already do in and outside our hospital walls. The TEHN will improve the coordination of care for patients in the community through a partnership between the hospital and other local health care providers. This $50 million gift from the Garrons will enable the hospital to: • Purchase state-of-art equipment including a new CT scanner and leading-edge tools that directly supports the work of our health care professionals at the bedside. • Attract top talent with the creation of the first teaching and research Chair positions. • Fund research studies that drive clinical innovation to improve patient care. The Garron Family has a long history of philanthropy in Canada. Over the years they have generously donated many large gifts. They have given to our hospital in the past, including funds to support the purchase of the Da Vinci Surgical System Robot. “Before our son Michael passed away, we made a commitment to him that his memory would never be forgotten. It warms our heart to know that this gift will benefit so many families and children who use this hospital.” - Myron and Berna Garron. “I’m extremely proud and thankful to the Garrons for this transformational gift. This is a defining moment for our hospital and East Toronto. This investment in equipment and talent will allow us to continue delivering outstanding care to our diverse community. ” - Sarah Downey, President & CEO, Toronto East General Hospital. “Philanthropy plays an important role in our health system and today health care in East Toronto got a new name: the Michael Garron Hospital. With this generous support from the Garrons, we are able to fund much needed investments in patient care and innovation. Our hospital will be propelled to the global stage, making it an example of excellence, innovation and inspiration around the world.” - Michael Burns, Chair of the TEGH Foundation Board of Directors. “This is a defining moment in the history of this hospital. This investment enables us to make East Toronto one of the healthiest places to live in Toronto. We’re grateful for the tremendous support from the Garron Family.” - Krystyna Hoeg, Chair of the TEGH Board of Directors. -30- For more information:




Messages of Support “This very generous gift from the Garron family is greatly appreciated in that it will enable new investments in equipment and technologies for our hospital. With the Province poised to fund a major redevelopment of the hospital’s physical space, the gift’s timing will help keep the hospital at the forefront of community healthcare for years to come. I commend the family’s philanthropy and commitment to our community in remembrance of their son, Michael.” Arthur Potts – Member of Provincial Parliament, Beaches-East York “The extraordinary generosity of Berna and Myron will ensure a legacy of excellence for this great hospital for decades to come.” Dr. Rajiv Singal – Urologist & TEGH Foundation Board member “As a community builder and former Minister of Health, I can say that this is a monumental day for the hospital, community and local healthcare system. This gift will keep the community and hospital that we all know and love, healthy and strong into the future.” Frances Lankin - Former Member of Provincial Parliament and former CEO of United Way “This is my hospital. I was born here and my wife and I have received care here. Over the years I've also worked with the hospital staff on a number of projects to help improve the health and wellbeing of our shared community. There is no doubt that this unprecedented gift will have a profound impact on the health of East Toronto for generations to come!” Brian Smith – Former CEO Woodgreen Community Services “This hospital has a great and long history of serving East York families. My wife Pat and our four children were born here. This donation will ensure that our families will receive the best care right here in our community.” Case Ootes - former City Councillor & Deputy Mayor -30

Tuesday, December 15, 2015

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Updating capital requirements for residential mortgages copy


Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Updating capital requirements for residential mortgages
Date: December 11, 2015
Banks
Bank Holding Companies
Federally Regulated Trust and Loan Companies
Federally Regulated Mortgage Insurance Companies


OSFI is planning to update the regulatory capital requirements for loans secured by residential real estate properties (i.e. residential mortgages).Footnote 1 Risks in the Canadian mortgage market continue to evolve. Household debt continues to grow faster than income and housing prices in some markets continue to rise rapidly. The planned changes to the regulatory capital framework will ensure that capital requirements keep pace with those developments and reflect underlying risks.


As per our usual practice, OSFI will consult with federally regulated financial institutions and other stakeholders before making any changes, initially through a directed consultation with industry in the new year, followed by broader public consultation later in 2016. We expect to have final rules in place no later than 2017. The anticipated changes will impact the regulatory capital requirements for those deposit-taking institutions using internal models for mortgage default riskFootnote 2 and the standardized capital requirements for Canada’s private mortgage insurers.Footnote 3


The purpose of OSFI’s regulatory capital framework is to ensure, as much as possible, that federally regulated financial institutions can absorb severe but plausible losses. The potential severity of loss scenarios in the residential mortgage market depends crucially on price developments. In particular, potential losses become more severe during extended periods where house prices have recently risen rapidly and/or are high relative to borrower incomes. As a result, the potential severity of losses may vary across Canada.


Accordingly, for banks using internal models, OSFI will propose a risk-sensitive floor for one of the model inputs (losses in the event of default) that will be tied to increases in local property prices and/or to house prices that are high relative to borrower incomes. This will ensure a level of consistency and conservatism in the protection provided to depositors and unsecured creditors.


For federally regulated private mortgage insurers, we will introduce a new standardized approach that updates the capital requirements for mortgage guarantee insurance risk. It will require more capital when house prices are high relative to borrower incomes. This will ensure a level of conservatism in the protection provided to policyholders and unsecured creditors.


At present, federally regulated deposit-taking institutions benefit from very low capital requirements on mortgages that are insured against default, in recognition of the government backstop on that insurance. OSFI is also considering additional criteria for recognizing the capital benefits of mortgage insurance in light of recent observations related to mortgage loan documentation. The risk mitigation benefits of mortgage insurance for regulatory capital purposes should, in principle, be reduced in circumstances where there may be material concerns around compliance with the terms of the insurance policy. This is consistent with OSFI Guidelines B-20 and B-21, which emphasize the importance of monitoring lender compliance with the terms of insurance contracts.Footnote 4


Current capital requirements for banks and private mortgage insurers already contain an appreciable degree of conservatism regarding residential mortgages. These proposed updates to regulatory capital requirements reflect a measured and forward looking response to changing risks in the Canadian mortgage market. They will be applied on a go-forward basis to new mortgage loans.


Questions concerning this letter should be addressed to Richard Gresser, Senior Director, Capital Division at richard.gresser@osfi-bsif.gc.ca or Bernard Dupont, Senior Director, Capital Division at bernard.dupont@osfi-bsif.gc.ca.


Mark Zelmer
Deputy Superintendent

Tuesday, December 1, 2015

Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 2015-12-02

Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501
PK-AXC.jpg
The aircraft involved in the crash, registered as PK-AXC, eight months before the crash
Accident summary
Date 28 December 2014
Summary Rudder travel limiter failure and inappropriate pilot response[1] [2]
Site Karimata Strait, Java Sea (near Belitung and Borneo Islands, Indonesia)[3]
3.623°S 109.712°ECoordinates: 3.623°S 109.712°E[a]
Passengers 155
Crew 7
Fatalities 162 (all)[4]
Survivors 0[4]
Aircraft type Airbus A320-216
Operator Indonesia AirAsia
Registration PK-AXC
Flight origin Juanda International Airport, Surabaya, Indonesia
Destination Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore
Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 (QZ8501/AWQ8501) was a scheduled international passenger flight, operated by AirAsia Group affiliate Indonesia AirAsia, from Surabaya, Indonesia, to Singapore. On 28 December 2014, the aircraft operating the route, an Airbus A320-216, registered as PK-AXC, msn: 3648,[5] crashed into the Java Sea during bad weather, killing all 155 passengers and seven crew on board.[6] Two days after the crash, debris from the aircraft and human remains were found floating in the Java Sea. Searchers located wreckage on the sea floor beginning on 3 January, and the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder were recovered by 13 January. The search for bodies ended in March 2015 after recovery of 113 of the 162 bodies.[7]

On 20 January 2015, it was reported that the aircraft had stalled during an abnormally steep climb and had been unable to recover. On 1 December 2015, the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee released its report concluding that[8] that the sequence of events leading to the crash started with a malfunction in the rudder travel limiter unit that eventually led to a 104-degree roll of the aircraft. The pilots' response, and apparent miscommunication between them, was a significant link in the chain of events that led to the loss of the aircraft.[9] [10][11]

The air crash[12] of 28 December 2014 was the second-deadliest in Indonesian territory, behind Garuda Indonesia Flight 152 in 1997, the third-deadliest aviation incident in 2014, behind Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 and Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.

Contents  [hide]
1 Sequence of events
1.1 Timeline of disappearance
2 Search and recovery
2.1 Wreckage
3 Aircraft
4 Passengers and crew
5 Investigation
5.1 Final NTSC report
6 Reaction
6.1 AirAsia
6.2 Airbus
6.3 Indonesia
6.4 Family members of crew members and passengers
6.5 Legal proceedings
6.6 Air transport industry
6.7 Indonesian tourism
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 External links
Sequence of events[
Flight path and location of debris. Flight path (red) is limited to range of Flightradar24 coverage; it does not reflect ATC coverage.
Flight 8501 was a scheduled flight from Surabaya, Java, Indonesia to Singapore on Sunday, 28 December 2014. It was scheduled to depart Juanda International Airport at 05:20 Western Indonesian Time (WIB, UTC+7) and arrive at Singapore Changi Airport at 08:30 Singapore Standard Time (SST, UTC+8).[13] Flight 8501 took off at 05:35.[b] Indonesia AirAsia did not have permission from the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation to operate the route on Sundays.[c][16]

After departure, Flight 8501 was in contact with the Jakarta Area Control Centre (callsign: "Jakarta Center"),[17] which provides air traffic control (ATC) service over the western Java Sea, and flying along air route M635,[17] when it approached a line of thunderstorms off the southwest coast of Borneo.[18] At 06:12, Flight 8501 was flying at flight level 320—approximately 32,000 ft (9,750 m)—when the cockpit requested and received permission to deviate left from its original flight path to avoid these storms.[19] The pilot then requested to climb to flight level 380,[20] which was deferred by ATC because of other aircraft in the vicinity.[17][21][22][23] AirNav Indonesia, which operates the Jakarta Area Control Centre, reported that Jakarta Centre then cleared Flight 8501 to flight level 340 at 06:14,[d] but no response was received; other aircraft in the vicinity were asked to contact Flight 8501, but also did not receive a response.[17][24]

Between 06:17:00 and 06:17:54, the aircraft climbed from 32,000 to 37,000 ft (9,800 to 11,300 m),[25] exceeding a climb rate of 6,000 ft (1,800 m) per minute, about twice the maximum rate that a commercial aircraft should climb in still air.[26][27] A photo of a secondary radar screen, without a timestamp, showed the aircraft at flight level 363—approximately 36,300 ft (11,100 m)—and climbing with a ground speed of 353 knots (654 km/h; 406 mph), which is too slow to maintain stable level flight in still air.[23][28] The Indonesian Minister of Transport interpreted the apparent aircraft behaviour at peak altitude as an aerodynamic stall, when it began to descend at 06:17:54, descending 1,000 ft (300 m) within six seconds and 8,000 ft (2,400 m) within 31 seconds.[25] The aircraft also began a turn to the left, forming at least one complete circle before disappearing from radar at 06:18:44.[25][29][30] The cockpit voice recorder captured multiple warnings, including a stall warning, sounding in the cockpit during the final minutes of the flight.[31] No distress signal was sent from the aircraft.[32][33]

Timeline of disappearance
Elapsed (HH:MM) Time Event
UTC WIB
UTC+7 SST
UTC+8
00:00 27 December 28 December Flight departed from Juanda International Airport.[b] Scheduled departure was 05:20 WIB.[13]
22:35 05:35 06:35
00:37 23:12 06:12 07:12 Pilots requested and received air traffic controller (ATC) clearance to divert left from the flight plan to avoid bad weather. The pilot then also requested permission to climb from 32,000 ft (9,800 m) to 38,000 ft (12,000 m). Jakarta ATC deferred this request because of traffic.[13][20][21]
00:39 23:14 06:14 07:14 ATC offered permission to climb, but no response was received from pilots.[24]
00:42 23:17 06:17 07:17 Radar contact was lost, according to AirNav Indonesia. AirAsia initially reported that contact was lost at 06:24.[13][15][34][35]
00:43 23:18 06:18 07:18 ADS-B transponder signal was lost, with last position reported as 3.3708°S 109.6911°E, according to Indonesia's Ministry of Transport.[29]
01:20 23:55 06:55 07:55 AirAsia Flight QZ8501 was officially declared missing. Its last known position is over the Java Sea, Karimata Strait between the islands of Belitung and Kalimantan.[36]
01:55 28 December 07:30 08:30 The aircraft missed scheduled arrival at Singapore Changi Airport.
00:30
04:47 03:22 10:22 11:22 Search and rescue (SAR) operations were activated by the Indonesia National Search and Rescue Agency (Basarnas) from the Pangkal Pinang office.[37]
04:55 03:30 10:30 11:30 The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) and Changi Airport Group (CAG) Crisis Management Centres were reported to have been activated, working with the airline’s crisis management team.[38]
05:06 03:41 10:41 11:41 AirAsia announced on Facebook and Twitter (six minutes later) that AirAsia flight QZ8501 from Surabaya to Singapore lost contact with air traffic control.[39][40]
Search and recovery
Shortly after the aircraft was confirmed to be missing, unconfirmed reports stated that wreckage had been found off the island of Belitung in Indonesia.[41][42][43] Indonesia's National Search and Rescue Agency (Basarnas) deployed seven ships and two helicopters to search the shores of Belitung and Kalimantan.[44] The Indonesian Navy and the provincial Indonesian National Police Air and Water Unit each sent out search and rescue teams.[45] In addition, an Indonesian Air Force Boeing 737 reconnaissance aircraft was dispatched to the last known location of the airliner.[46]

The Indonesian Navy dispatched four ships by the end of the first search day and the Air Force deployed aircraft including a CASA/IPTN CN-235.[47] The Indonesian Army deployed ground troops to search the shores and mountains of adjacent islands.[48] Local fishermen also participated in the search.

Ongoing search and rescue operations were under the guidance of the Civil Aviation Authority of Indonesia.[49] The search was suspended at 7:45 pm local time on 28 December due to darkness and bad weather, to be resumed in daylight.[50] An operations center to coordinate search efforts was set up in Pangkal Pinang.[51] The search area was a 270-nautical-mile (500 km) radius near Belitung Island.[13]

Search and rescue operations quickly became an international effort. By 30 December naval and air units from Singapore, Malaysia and Australia had joined Indonesian authorities in patrolling designated search areas.[52] Singapore's Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) deployed three C-130 Hercules aircraft to aid in the search and rescue operation.[53][54] A Formidable-class frigate, a Victory-class corvette, a Landing Ship Tank, and a submarine support and rescue vessel subsequently took part in the search and rescue after Indonesia's National Search and Rescue Agency accepted the offer of help from the Republic of Singapore Navy. Singapore's Ministry of Transport provided specialist teams from the Air Accident and Investigation Bureau and underwater locator equipment.[54] The Malaysian government set up a rescue coordination centre at Subang and deployed three military vessels and three aircraft, including a C-130, to assist in search and rescue operations.[55][56][57] Australia deployed a P-3 Orion to assist in the search and rescue operation.[58] India put three ships and a Boeing P-8 Poseidon maritime surveillance aircraft on standby for assistance in the search operation, including one ship in the Bay of Bengal and another in the Andaman Sea.[59] Elements of the United States Navy joined the search effort; USS Sampson arrived on station late on 30 December,[60] and USS Fort Worth on 3 January.[61]

By 5 January, 31 bodies had been recovered with the aid of the Russian and the US search teams.[62] Divers entered the main section of the fuselage underwater and discovered 6 bodies on 24 January.[63][64]

Vessels and aircraft from Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, the United States, and Russia participated in the search.[65][66][67][68] This fleet included three ships with underwater detectors and two fuel tankers seconded to ensure efficient operation of the vessels in the search area.[69] On 2 January the Indonesian Ministry of Transport reported that two other Indonesian tender vessels had been fitted with equipment which could detect acoustic signals from the flight recorder ("black box") beacons and airframe metal, as well as multibeam side scan sonar.[70]

The official search for bodies ended on 17 March, after 106 bodies had been recovered. Fifty-six bodies remained unaccounted for.[7][71]

A live Reddit feed that was constantly updating the details of the search and recovery efforts, leaked details of the operation. An April press conference revealed details discovered by the BASARNAS rescue team divers. 115 remains (including body parts) were recovered. 111 of them are believed to be from 99 passengers.[72]

Wreckage

An offshore supply ship with the tail of PK-AXC on its stern on 10 January 2015
On the day of the disappearance, a fisherman observed "a lot of debris, small and large, near Pulau Tujuh. [...] It looked like the Air Asia colours."[73][74][75] Another fisherman reported that, while moored on Sunday at Pulau Senggora, south of the town of Pangkalan Bun in Central Kalimantan, "Around 7am, I heard a loud booming sound. Soon afterwards, there was haze that usually happened only during the dry season. [...] Before the booming sound, my friends saw a plane from above Pulau Senggaro heading towards the sea. The plane was said to be flying relatively low but then disappeared."[76][77]

The fishermen's reports, delivered after they had returned home the next day, were credited with guiding the search and rescue team to the vicinity of the crash.[76] The first items of wreckage were spotted by search aircraft on 30 December in the Karimata Strait, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from where the crew last contacted air traffic control,[78][79][80][81] and three bodies were recovered by the warship KRI Bung Tomo.[82][83][84][85][e] Also on 30 December Indonesia's Search and Rescue Services reported that the wreckage of the aircraft had been located on the Java Sea floor, 97–100 nautical miles (180–185 km) southwest of Pangkalan Bun.[citation needed]

On 31 December, Basarnas claimed that a sonar image obtained 30 December by an Indonesian naval ship appeared to show an aircraft upside down on the seabed in about 24–30 m (80–100 ft) of water, approximately 3.2–3.5 km (2.0–2.2 mi) from the debris found on 30 December.[88][89][90] The head of the Search and Rescue Agency also denied the existence of any sonar images of the wreckage (as well as the reported recovery of a body wearing a life vest).[29] He stressed that only official information from his Search and Rescue service can be considered to be reliable.

On 2 January 2015, Basarnas reported evidence of a fuel slick on the water surface in the search area, but detection of the fuselage remained unconfirmed.[69]

At a press conference given on the morning of 3 January by Basarnas, the discovery of two large submerged objects was reported: 9.4m × 4.8m × 0.4m, and a thin object 7.2m × 0.5m.[91] Also, the previously reported fuel slick was confirmed. A later media report mentioned four large sections of wreckage, the largest being 18m × 5.4m × 2.2m located at 3.9242°S 110.5252°E.[92] Later in the day, Basarnas announced[93] the discovery of the two larger "adjacent" objects in the afternoon of 3 January was confirmed, but apparently not "adjacent" to the first two somewhat separated items found the previous day. The two additional items were observed to be 18m × 5.4m × 2.2m and 12.4m × 0.6m × 0.5m. No more bodies were found, leaving the total at 30.

On 7 January divers found parts of the aircraft including a portion of the tail.[94] Other portions of the tail are expected to lie nearby.[95][96] On 10 January divers used an inflatable device to bring the aircraft's tail to the surface of the sea.[97][98] They continued to search the sea floor within 500 metres (1,600 ft) of where faint pings were heard.[99]

On 11 January a sonar scan detected an object measuring 10 metres × 4 metres × 2.5 metres on the sea floor, and divers began work to verify the discovery and confirm that it was the fuselage of the missing aircraft.[citation needed]

The flight data recorder was recovered by Indonesian divers on 12 January at 3.6225°S 109.7117°E,[100] within 4 km (2.5 mi) of part of the fuselage and tail.[29] Later in the day the cockpit voice recorder was located[101] and was recovered the following day.[102]

On 14 January searchers located a large portion of the fuselage with one wing attached.[103] On 25 January ropes around the fuselage snapped during an initial failed effort to raise the wreckage. Four bodies were recovered, taking the total recovered to 69. More bodies were thought to be inside. Rear Admiral Widodo, who is in charge of recovery operations, said that the fuselage might be too fragile to be lifted.[104]

On 27 February salvage workers recovered a large piece of fuselage, including the wings, of the A320. Lifting balloons were used to lift the fuselage, but the first attempt failed as the balloons deflated.[105] By March 2015 all large pieces of fuselage from the jet had been lifted from the seafloor and moved for investigation purposes.

Aircraft
The aircraft was an Airbus A320-216,[f] with serial number 3648, registered as PK-AXC. It first flew on 25 September 2008, and was delivered to AirAsia on 15 October 2008. The aircraft had accumulated approximately 23,000 flight hours over 13,600 flights. It had undergone its most recent scheduled maintenance on 16 November 2014.[15] The aircraft was powered by two CFM International CFM56-5B6 engines and was configured to carry 180 passengers.[106]

Passengers and crew[edit]
Persons on board by nationality:[107]
Nationality No.
 Indonesia[g] 155
 South Korea 3
 France[h] 1
 Malaysia 1
 Singapore 1
 United Kingdom[i][108] 1
Total 162
AirAsia released details of the 155 passengers which included 137 adults, 17 children, and one infant. The crew consisted of two pilots and four flight attendants. A company engineer was also on board and was not counted as one of the passengers.[109]

The pilots on board the flight were:[110]

Captain Iriyanto,[j] age 53, an Indonesian national, had a total of 20,537 flying hours, of which 6,100 were with AirAsia Indonesia on the Airbus A320. The captain began his career with the Indonesian Air Force, graduating from pilot school in 1983 and flying jet fighter aircraft. He took early retirement from the air force in the mid-1990s to join Adam Air, and later worked for Merpati Nusantara Airlines and Sriwijaya Air before joining Indonesia AirAsia.[111]
First Officer Rémi Emmanuel Plesel, age 46, a French national, had a total of 2,275 flying hours with AirAsia Indonesia.[109] He was originally from Le Marigot, Martinique,[112] and had studied and worked in Paris. He was living in Indonesia.[113]
41 people who were on board the AirAsia flight were members of a single church congregation. Most were families with young children travelling to Singapore for a new year's holiday.[114]

The bodies began to be released to their families on 1 January 2015. At that time the East Java Department of Visual Identification commissioner stated that the victims were identified by the means of post-mortem results, thumb prints and their personal belongings.[115]

Investigation[edit]
The events leading to the crash were investigated by Indonesia's National Transportation Safety Committee (KNKT or NTSC). Assistance was provided by Australia, France, Singapore, and Malaysia.[116]

Data from the flight data recorder were downloaded.[117] 124 minutes of cockpit dialogue was successfully extracted from the cockpit voice recorder. The sound of many alarms from the flight system can be heard in the final minutes, almost drowning out the voices of the pilots. The investigators ruled out a terrorist attack as the cause and then examined the possibility of human error or aircraft malfunction.[31] The aircraft altitude recorded by ATC radar increased from 32,000 ft (9,750 m) to 37,000 ft (11,300 m) between 06:17:00 and 06:17:54 WIB, at an initial rate of up to 6,000 ft/min (1,830 m/min). At 06:17:54, the aircraft descended from 37,000 ft (11,300 m) to 36,000 ft (11,000 m) in six seconds, and to 29,000 ft (8,840 m) in 31 seconds.[25]

The Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics had reported that bad weather was believed to be the major factor to triggering the incident, specifically a weather phenomenon called atmospheric icing, "which can cause engine damage due to a cooling process".[118]

Acting director of Air Transportation, Djoko Murjatmodjo, clearly stated that the investigation of the flight route and the investigation of the crash itself are separate. Murjatmodjo said that "AirAsia is clearly wrong because they didn’t fly at a time and schedule that was already determined."[105] Both Singapore’s civil aviation authority and the Changi Airport Group stated that Air Asia was allowed daily flights between Surabaya and Singapore.[119] Tatang Kurniadi, head of Indonesia’s national transportation safety committee, stated that sabotage was ruled out as a cause of the incident by the black boxes, and a preliminary report was supposedly submitted to the International Civil Aviation Organisation by early February.

Final NTSC report[edit]
After studying the wreckage of the Airbus A320-216 as well as the two black boxes and the cockpit recorder, Indonesia's National Transportation Safety Committee issued the report with their conclusions from the investigation on 1 December 2015. The report stated that the sequence of events that led to the crash started with a malfunction in two of the plane’s rudder travel limiter units.[120] A tiny soldered electrical connection in the rudder-travel limiter unit was found to be cracked, causing it to send four warning signals to the pilots.[121] The crew's attempt to fix the problem by resetting the flight management system also disengaged the autopilot, which contributed to the subsequent loss of control.[121]

Specifics in the report indicate that French First Officer Rémi Emmanuel Plesel was at the controls just before the stall warning sounded in the cockpit indicating that the jet had lost lift. The final step of the attempted fix consisted of one of the pilots pulling out and re-inserting the circuit breaker of the Flight Augmentation Computer (FAC),[122]which disengaged the autopilot and the system did not start up again after the circuit breaker was re-installed.[123]This procedure is usually prohibited during flight because disabling the computer causes not only the autopilot but also the automatic stall protection to stop functioning.[124] The FAC is the part of the fly-by-wire system in A320 aircraft responsible for controlling flight surfaces including the rudder. Without the FAC's computerized flight augmentation, pilots would have to "rely on manual flying skills that are often stretched during a sudden airborne emergency".[125] When the crew was required to fly the Airbus A320 manually, there was a nine second delay between the start of the roll and a pilot attempting to take control.[126]

The report did not not specifically conclude that pilot error caused the crash[127] while detailing the chain of events leading to the loss of Flight 8501. However, one of the investigators, the NTSC's Nurcahyo Utomo, referred to an apparent miscommunication between the pilots (based on the recordings on the cockpit voice recorder) and said that the malfunction should not have led to a total loss of control had they followed the recommended procedure.[128]

Specifically, the report stated, "Subsequent flight crew action resulted in inability to control the aircraft... causing the aircraft to depart from the normal flight envelope and enter a prolonged stall condition that was beyond the capability of the flight crew to recover".[129] CNN's aviation correspondent Richard Quest summarized the chain of events as follows: "it's a series of technical failures, but it's the pilot response that leads to the plane crashing."[130]


Chronological ATC radar data of aircraft track obtained from the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation.[25]


Infrared satellite imagery (taken at 7:32 WIB) with flight path superimposed on the right. On this false-colour, water-vapour-band image, blue represents warmer temperatures, while red and ultimately black represent the cold tops of high-altitude clouds.


Secondary radar image shows Flight 8501 (circled in yellow) at an altitude of 36,300 ft (11,100 m) and climbing, travelling at 353 kn (654 km/h; 406 mph) ground speed.[29]
Reaction[edit]
AirAsia[edit]
Following the disappearance, all AirAsia subsidiaries changed their website and social media branding to greyscale images, in mourning for the presumed deaths of the passengers; Changi Airport's Facebook page was similarly changed as well.[131][132] An emergency call center has also been established by the airline, for family of those who were on board the aircraft,[133] and an emergency information center was set up at Juanda International Airport, providing hourly updates and lodging for relatives.[134] Smaller posts were also opened at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport[135] and Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport.[136]

On 31 December 2014, Indonesia AirAsia retired the flight number QZ8501, changing it to QZ678. The return flight number was also changed, from QZ8502 to QZ679.[137]

Subsequent to the 1 December 2015 NTSC report as to the causes of the crash, the airline said it had already implemented improved pilot training. The founder of Indonesia AirAsia, Tony Fernandes, posted the following tweets on Twitter: "These are scars that are left on me forever but I remain committed to make Airasia the very best" and "We owe it to the families and my crew. My heart and deep sorrow goes out to all the families involved in QZ8501."[138] In another tweet, Fernandes wrote: "There is much to be learned here for AirAsia, the manufacturer and the aviation industry. We will not leave any stone unturned to make sure the industry learns from this tragic incident."[139]

Airbus[edit]
Immediately after the NTSC report on the crash was released on 1 December 2015, the manufacturer of the A320 aircraft was not ready to provide a comment, stating in an e-mail that “Airbus has just received the final accident report. We are now carefully studying its content.”[140]

Indonesia[edit]
AirAsia did not have official permission to fly the Surabaya–Singapore route on Sunday – the day of the crash – but was licensed on four other days of the week, and, according to an Indonesian Ministry of Transport statement, "The Indonesian authorities are suspending the company's flights on this route with immediate effect pending an investigation."[16] In response on the same day, the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) and the Changi Airport Group (CAG) made a clarification that AirAsia QZ8501 "has been given approval at Singapore's end to operate a daily flight for the Northern Winter Season from Oct 26, 2014 to Mar 28, 2015".[141]

On 6 January 2015, Indonesian Ministry of Transport representative Djoko Murjatmojo stated that "officials at the airport operator in Surabaya and [the] air traffic control agency who had allowed the flight to take off had been moved to other duties", and an immediate air transport directive had been issued "making it mandatory for pilots to go through a face-to-face briefing by an airline flight operations officer on weather conditions and other operational issues prior to every flight".[142]

The loss of Flight 8501 also brought attention to the lack of weather radar at Indonesian air traffic control centres.[143][144] According to the Toronto Star, "Indonesia’s aviation industry has been plagued with problems ... pilot shortages, shoddy maintenance and poor oversight have all been blamed following a string of deadly accidents in recent years."[145]

The West Kotawaringin administration in Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan planned to build a memorial for the Air Asia flight which also doubles as a monument for aviation safety. Cental Kalimantan deputy governor Achmad Diran also stated that the monument is also going to be the symbol of gratitude and appreciation for the efforts of the National Search and Rescue Agency. The cornerstone ceremony took place on Wednesday, and was attended by local and state officials and representatives from Australia and Singapore. West Kotawaringin regent Ujang Iskandar stated that “With this monument, we hope that the families and the government will lay flowers every Dec. 28, and continue the dialogue on aviation safety in Indonesia." On March 22, there was a gathering of people near the site of the crash and the crowd laid flowers around.[146]

Family members of crew members and passengers[edit]
Air Asia has reportedly offered US$32,000 or Rp300 million to each of the grieving family members of the victims of the incident as 'initial compensation from an overall part of compensation, Wall Street Journal claimed from a letter on Air Asia stationary dated January 2 grieving family member David Thejakusuma received; who had 7 family members on the flight, the amount for each family member he lost.[147]

On Monday, the 16 of March, Monash University awarded in the form of posthumous title (award of posthumous degree) the Bachelor of Commerce to one of the late crash victims, Kevin Alexander Sujipto. Professor Colm Kearney, Dean of the Faculty of Business and Economics presented it to a member of his family. A memorial service was held alongside the presentation of the award, and was attended by the Consul General of Indonesia for Victoria and Tasmania Dewi Savitri Wahab, 40 of the deceased's friends and representatives from the Indonesian Student Association in Australia (PPIA) Monash University branch.[148]

Legal proceedings[edit]
France opened a criminal investigation to investigate possible manslaughter charges.[149] The family of the first officer, a French national, have filed a lawsuit against AirAsia in connection to the lack of permission to fly on that day, claiming the airline was "endangering the life of others".[149]

Surabaya Mayor Tri Rismaharini says her administration is ready to sue AirAsia should it ignore the rights of the families of passengers on flight QZ8501, following the suspension of the airline’s flight permit from the East Java city to Singapore. Risma said her administration had also consulted with legal experts from Airlangga University on the fears of most families regarding the difficulties in disbursing insurance funds, after the Transportation Ministry regarded the Surabaya-Singapore flight on Dec. 28 as illegitimate. She said her administration continued to collect data on the victims, including their valuable belongings. The data would later be used for insurance purposes and matters related to the beneficiary rights of the affected families.[150]

A US-based aviation lawyer was planning to sue AirAsia claiming that they are "representing" 10 families over an aircraft malfunction following the crash of Flight QZ8501. Principal of Chicago-based Wisner Law Firm Floyd Wisner said that although preliminary investigations found that weather was a factor, the Airbus A320-200 suffered a malfunction of the fly-by-wire system. According to the statement, the lawsuit, which was filed in the US state of Illinois, states that “at the time the accident aircraft left the control of defendant Airbus, it was defectively and unreasonably dangerous,” and names Honeywell International, Motorola Inc and other suppliers along with Airbus as defendants.[151][152]

The case is Aris Siswanto et al v Airbus, SAS et al, 1:15-cv-05486. U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois (Chicago). As of 30 June 2015, the suit had still named only Airbus and its suppliers but AirAsia was to be added as a defendant, according to Floyd Wisner of the Wisner law firm.[153]

Air transport industry[edit]
Following the recovery of the flight recorders, on 12 and 13 January, an anonymous International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) representative said, "The time has come that deployable recorders are going to get a serious look." Unlike military recorders, which jettison away from an aircraft and float on the water, signalling their location to search and rescue bodies, recorders on commercial aircraft sink. A second ICAO official said that public attention had "galvanized momentum in favour of ejectable recorders on commercial aircraft".[154]

Indonesian tourism[edit]
Indonesia's tourism was badly affected by the incident. According to the head of Indonesia’s Central Statistics Agency (CSA) Suryamin in a press conference at his office on the 1st of April, the accident has caused the number of foreign visitors to decline. Figures from the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism has shown that the number of incoming foreign tourists at Surabaya’s Juanda Airport has declined by 5.33 percent, Jakarta’s Soekarno-Hatta International Airport by 15.01 percent, and Bandung’s Husein Sastranegara Airport by 10.66 percent.[155]

See also[edit]
Adam Air Flight 574
Accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A320 family
List of aircraft accidents and incidents resulting in at least 50 fatalities


Samsung Galaxy S5 Vector.svg2010s portal Aviacionavion.pngAviation portal SanFranHouses06.JPGDisasters portal Flag of Indonesia.svgIndonesia portal Flag of Singapore.svgSingapore portal Sobo 1909 37.pngDeath portal
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Location where the aircraft's flight data recorder was found under wreckage on the sea floor
^ Jump up to: a b Also reported as occurring at 05:36 or 05:32 WIB.[14][15]
Jump up ^ Indonesia AirAsia did have permission to fly this route four other days of the week.[16]
Jump up ^ At least one version of the story claims that Flight 8501 requested to climb, but did not specify to what altitude and that Jakarta Centre asked for an altitude, but no response was given by Flight 8501.[24]
Jump up ^ At 10:05 UTC, Reuters, quoting Indonesian official Manahan Simorangkir, reported that 40 bodies had been recovered,[86] but this was later retracted by an Indonesian navy spokesman as a "miscommunication by staff".[87]
Jump up ^ The aircraft was an Airbus A320-200 model; the 16 specifies it was fitted with CFM International CFM56-5B6 engines.
Jump up ^ 149 passengers and six crew members, including the Captain
Jump up ^ One crew member, the first officer
Jump up ^ Dual British-Hong Kong citizen boarding with British passport.
Jump up ^ Iriyanto is a mononym (one-word name), which is common for Indonesian names.
References[edit]
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Jump up ^ no by-line.--> (28 December 2014). "Database - Accident Description". Air Safety Network. Air Safety Network (ASN). Retrieved 22 December 2015. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
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Jump up ^ "Kemenhub Pastikan Serpihan di Selat Karimata Bagian Pesawat", News (detik), 30 December 2014
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Jump up ^ "3 Mayat Diduga Korban Air Asia Ditemukan Basarnas", Tempo, 30 December 2014
Jump up ^ "Basarnas Pastikan Serpihan dan Jasad Korban AirAsia Ditemukan Selat Karimata", Poskota News, 30 December 2014
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Jump up ^ "Sonar finds location of downed AirAsia Flight 8501". CBS News. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
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Jump up ^ "Four large sections of AirAsia Flight QZ8501 found: 2 January 2015". The Financial Express. Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
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Jump up ^ Richard C. Paddock (10 January 2015). "AirAsia Flight 8501: Tail Recovered – WSJ". WSJ. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
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Jump up ^ "FDR dan CVR QZ8501 Selesai Diunduh". KEMENTERIAN PERHUBUNGAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA (in Indonesian). 15 January 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
Jump up ^ "Searchers recover one black box from AirAsia Flight QZ8501, find the other". CNN. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
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Jump up ^ AirAsia QZ8501: Fresh bid to raise fuselage fails - BBC News
^ Jump up to: a b "Underwater search for AirAsia flight QZ8501 resumes". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
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Jump up ^ "Pilot response led to AirAsia crash into Java Sea". CNN News. Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
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Jump up ^ "Air Asia Incident Causes Decline in Foreign Visitor Number". Tempo. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
External links[edit]
[show]Map all coordinates using OSM
Map all coordinates using Google
Map up to 200 coordinates using Bing
Wikinews-logo.svg News related to Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 at Wikinews

 Media related to Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 at Wikimedia Commons

AirAsia Flight 8501 – AirAsia's official webpage for information about Flight 8501
Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
Passenger list (PDF) – From the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation
"Flight QZ8501 on 28 December – Airbus A320-200 – registered PK-AXC." – Accident investigation by France's aviation accident investigation agency BEA (representing the state of manufacture of the aircraft)
Weather analysis (in Indonesian) – Detailed analysis of weather in the vicinity and time of the crash and its possible implications, by the Indonesian Central Office of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG)
Flight 8501 Final Report Final accident report from KNKT (Indonesian's National Transportation Safety Committee)

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

RMR: Rick's Rant - Refugees Rick's Rant on Refugees.


RMR: Rick's Rant - Refugees
Rick's Rant on Refugees.
Posted by Rick Mercer Report on Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

To the Canadians who have been attacking other Canadians for being Muslim...



To the Canadians who have been attacking other Canadians for being Muslim...
Posted by This Hour Has 22 Minutes on Tuesday, November 24, 2015


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Thursday, November 19, 2015

Monday, November 9, 2015

Metrojet Flight 9268 (IATA: 7K-9268,[7] ICAO: KGL 9268[8]) was an international chartered passenger flight,[9] operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia (branded as Metrojet), which crashed in northern Sinai on 31 October 2015 at 06:13 EST (04:13 UTC)[10] following departure from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport, Egypt, en route to Pulkovo Airport, Saint Petersburg, Russia.[6][11][12] new info 2015-11- 9

Metrojet Flight 9268 (IATA: 7K-9268,[7] ICAO: KGL 9268[8]) was an international chartered passenger flight,[9] operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia (branded as Metrojet), which crashed in northern Sinai on 31 October 2015 at 06:13 EST (04:13 UTC)[10] following departure from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport, Egypt, en route to Pulkovo Airport, Saint Petersburg, Russia.[6][11][12]

The aircraft, an Airbus A321-231, was carrying 217 passengers and seven crew members.[13][14] Of those aboard, mostly tourists, there were 219 Russians, four Ukrainians, and one Belarusian.[13] With its death toll of 224 people,[13] the crash of Flight 9268 is the deadliest both in the history of Russian aviation[a][15] and within Egyptian territory.[b][16] It is also the deadliest air crash involving an aircraft from the Airbus A320 family,[c] and the deadliest plane crash of 2015.[d][17]

The possibility of a bomb being put on the plane at Sharm el-Sheikh led to several countries ordering their planes to stop serving that airport.

Shortly after the crash, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's (ISIL) Sinai Branch (previously known as Ansar Bait al-Maqdis) claimed responsibility for the incident, which occurred in the vicinity of the Sinai insurgency.[18][19] ISIL claimed responsibility on Twitter, on video, and in a statement by Abu Osama al-Masri, the groups leader [20] who said “We are the ones who downed it [Metrojet Flight 9268] by the grace of Allah, and we are not compelled to announce the method that brought it down.” [21] The plane crashed on the first anniversary of the group's affiliation with ISIL.[21]

On 8 November Reuters quoted an unnamed Egyptian investigation team member, speaking anonymously because of the sensitivity of the investigation, who said he was "90% sure" the jet was brought down by a bomb, based on an initial analysis of the last second of the cockpit voice recording. Lead investigator Ayman al-Muqaddam noted that other causes, such as lithium batteries overheating, a fuel explosion, or metal fatigue in the plane, still needed to be definitively ruled out.[22]

Contents
1 Aircraft
2 Crash
2.1 Response
3 Passengers and crew
4 Investigation
4.1 Tailstrike and maintenance hypotheses
4.2 Explosive device hypothesis
4.3 Missile hypothesis
5 Disruption to air traffic
6 International reactions
6.1 Russia
6.2 Egypt
6.3 Ireland
6.4 Israel
6.5 United Kingdom
6.6 Airbus
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 External links
Aircraft[edit]
previous livery
previous livery
previous livery
The aircraft in previous service: first with Middle East Airlines (left), then during its operation with Onur Air (middle) and then in previous Metrojet livery with the TUI logo.
The aircraft was an 18-year-old Airbus A321-231, serial number 663.[23] It was delivered to Middle East Airlines in May 1997 with a registration code of F-OHMP.[24] In 2003, it was leased by Onur Air and, beginning in 2007, it was subleased to Saudi Arabian Airlines and other carriers. In April 2012, Kolavia acquired the plane with a new registration of EI-ETJ and transferred it to Kogalymavia in May.[25]

The aircraft was powered by two IAE V2533 engines and configured to carry 220 passengers in an economy configuration plus crew seats.[26] At the time of the crash, it was owned by Dublin-based AerCap and leased to Kolavia.[27] The aircraft had accumulated 56,000 flight hours on nearly 21,000 flights.[23]

On 16 November 2001, while operating for Middle East Airlines as F-OHMP, the aircraft suffered a tailstrike landing in Cairo. It was repaired and went back into service with the airline in 2002.[28]

Crash
The route of the aircraft. The black dot indicates the starting point of the flight; the red dot indicates the last position at which the aircraft was tracked.

Last data received by Flightradar24.com[29]

Flight data received by FlightRadar24.com receivers since 04:12:00 UTC
Flight 9268 left Sharm el-Sheikh airport at 05:50 EST (03:50 UTC)[10] for Pulkovo Airport in Saint Petersburg, Russia, with 217 passengers and seven crew members on board. The aircraft failed to make contact with Cyprus Air Traffic Control 23 minutes later.[30] Russia's Federal Air Transport Agency confirmed the flight had disappeared from radar tracking. There was initial confusion about whether the plane had come down.[31]

An Islamic State group in Egypt said that it brought down the plane. Wassim Nasr, France 24’s expert on jihadi movements, said that the IS group has never claimed an attack they did not commit.[19] Russian media outlets said that the pilot reported technical problems and requested a landing at the nearest airport before the plane went missing, but Egyptian authorities disputed that claim.[32][33] Other sources suggested there were no such requests or distress signals.[34] The Egyptian Civilian Aviation Ministry issued a statement that indicated the flight was at an altitude of 31,000 ft (9,400 m) when it disappeared from radar screens after a steep descent of 5,000 ft (1,500 m) in one minute. Flightradar24 shows the aircraft climbing to 33,500 ft (10,200 m) at 404 kn (748 km/h; 465 mph) before suddenly descending to 28,375 ft (8,649 m) at 62 kn (115 km/h; 71 mph) approximately 50 km (31 mi) north east of Nekhel, after which its position was no longer tracked.[35] All 224 passengers and crew died.[33]

Reuters quoted an unnamed security officer as saying that the aircraft had been completely destroyed.[36] Wreckage was scattered over 20 square kilometres (8 sq mi), with the forward section about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the tail, indicating that the aircraft had broken up during flight.[37] Aerial images of the wreckage broadcast on RT indicated that the wings were intact until impact.[38] The debris pattern, combined with an initial interpretation of the aircraft's abrupt changes in altitude and airspeed, reinforced the presumption that the aircraft's tail separated during flight and fell separately.[38]

Response[edit]
Shortly after the aircraft's disappearance, Eurocontrol issued a notice to all operators along the route that because of technical problems all flights would be tactically re-routed. The notice was redacted shortly thereafter.[6]

Unnamed Egyptian authorities indicated that the first parts of the wreckage had been located.[6] Fifty ambulances were sent to the crash site[36] near Hassana, 300 kilometres (190 mi) from Sharm el-Sheikh.[39] Unnamed Egyptian officials reported that the aircraft "split in two" and most bodies were found strapped to their seats. Initial reports indicated that voices of trapped passengers could be heard in a section of the crashed aircraft.[40] At least 100 bodies were initially found, including at least five children.[41]

Passengers and crew[edit]
People on board by nationality
Citizenship Passengers Crew Total
 Russia 212 7 219
 Ukraine 4 0 4
 Belarus 1 0 1
217 7 224
Flight 9268 was carrying a total of 224 people, consisting of 217 passengers (including 25 children) and seven crew members.[13] Most of the passengers were Russian, according to the Russian embassy,[45] and a majority were female.[46] There were also four Ukrainians and one Belarusian on board.[47] Most of the passengers were tourists returning from Red Sea resorts.[48] The Association of Tour Operators of Russia released the passenger manifest of all those thought to have been on the flight.[49] The majority of the passengers were from Northwest Russia, including Saint Petersburg and the surrounding Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov oblasts.[13]

According to Kogalymavia, the flight's captain, Valery Yurievich Nemov, had more than 12,000 hours of flight time, including 3,800 hours on this aircraft type.[6] The first officer was Sergei Trukachev.[50]

Investigation
Ayman al-Muqaddam, the head of the central air traffic accident authority in Egypt, was appointed to investigate the cause of the crash. In a statement, he indicated that the pilot had made contact with the civil aviation authorities and asked to land at the nearest airport. He suggested the aircraft may have been attempting an emergency landing at El Arish International Airport in northern Sinai.[45] It crashed 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of the coastal city.[51] Egyptian Civil Aviation Minister Hossam Kamel said that air traffic control recordings did not show any distress calls. President of Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi said that a probe of the crash would take months.[52]

The Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations sent three of its aircraft to the crash site. The Investigative Committee also started a legal case against Kogalymavia under legislation regulating "violation of rules of flights and preparations."[53] Kogalymavia's employees were also questioned, along with those of the Brisco tour agency that had chartered the flight. Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry promised to work closely with Russian officials and investigators to find the cause of the accident. The aircraft had passed technical checks before taking off. Investigators would also view the security camera footage.[54] Soon after the crash, Russia's regional transport prosecutors determined that the quality of fuel on the aircraft met required standards.[55]

The aviation accident investigation agencies BEA (France), BFU (Germany), and AAIU (Ireland) participated in the investigation as representatives for the state of the aircraft's design, manufacture, and registration respectively.[56][57] The BEA sent two investigators, accompanied by six representatives from Airbus, to Egypt on 1 November.[56] According to the BEA, they joined two investigators from the BFU and four investigators from the Interstate Aviation Committee, their Russian counterpart, representing the state of the aircraft's operator.[56]

Both the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder were recovered from the crash site on 1 November. Russian Transport Minister Maksim Sokolov and a team of specialist investigators arrived in Cairo to assist the Egyptian investigators in determining the cause of the crash. The flight data recorders were reported to be in good condition.[58] On 4 November, Egypt's Civil Aviation Ministry Investigators reported that the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) was partially damaged and much work was required to extract data from it.[59] The CVR indicates that everything was normal until a sudden disastrous event. An explosion or other sudden loud noise is heard very shortly before the recorder stopped recording.[60]

As of 1 November, the Egyptian search and rescue team had found 163 bodies. As the search area widened, the Egyptian team found the body of a child about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the wreckage, indicating that the plane broke up in mid-flight. Russian investigator Viktor Sorochenko confirmed that the plane broke up in mid-flight.[61]

Tailstrike and maintenance hypotheses
Airline officials have announced that they have ruled out mechanical failure, but investigators have still not made such a determination.[62] Natalya Trukhacheva, the ex-wife of co-pilot Sergei Trukachev, said in an interview with NTV that her ex-husband had complained to their daughter about the aircraft's technical state.[50][63]

The aircraft involved in the crash had suffered a tailstrike while landing in Cairo fourteen years earlier.[28][62][64] Some have drawn comparisons to Japan Airlines Flight 123, which crashed into a mountain in 1985, seven years after the plane had suffered a tailstrike while landing.[62] Flight 123 suffered catastrophic damage in mid-air while climbing to its cruising altitude. The crash of Flight 123 was caused by an incorrect repair of the aircraft's tail section following the tailstrike, which left the rear pressure bulkhead of the plane vulnerable to metal fatigue and ultimately resulted in explosive decompression.[62] Reports on the wreckage of Flight 9268 have suggested that a "clear break" occurred near the plane's rear pressure bulkhead, possibly indicating failure of the bulkhead.[64]

On 2 November, Metrojet spokesman Alexander Smirnov insisted that the aircraft was 100% airworthy and that its crew was "very experienced". He showed the certificates the airline had received in 2014. He later added that the tailstrike incident in Cairo had been fully repaired, and the plane's engines had been inspected on 26 October, five days before the crash.[65][66]

Explosive device hypothesis
An unnamed official quoted by Reuters said that Flight 9268's tail section separated from the main body of the plane and was burning, which could indicate an explosion.[62] According to a senior US defence official speaking on 2 November, a US infrared satellite detected a heat flash at the time and place of the disaster, and the US intelligence community believed that it could have been an explosion on the plane, by either a fuel tank or a bomb. The plane had reportedly "disintegrated at a very high altitude." The satellite image also ruled out a missile attack. US Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper said that there was not yet any "direct evidence of terrorist involvement".[67] Some UK news outlets reported that an ISIL bomb was the most likely explanation for the crash.[68]

On 4 November the UK government said that in the light of further British intelligence, the crash "may well have been caused by an explosive device".[69] British aviation experts travelled to Egypt to assess airport security; the UK government Cobra emergency committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, considered their findings.

On 5 November, US President Barack Obama made a statement that the US government was taking the incident "very seriously", knowing that there was a possibility that a bomb was on board the flight.[70] At the same time, flights began to be stopped from and to Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt. This caused around 20,000 British tourists to be stranded.[71]

On 6 November, the BBC reported that the British government thinks the incident was probably caused by terrorism based on intercepted transmissions between militants based in Sinai. These transmissions suggest that a bomb was put in the hold prior to takeoff. Although the British have not ruled out a technical fault, the BBC reports that is "increasingly unlikely".[72]

Paul Adams, BBC world affairs correspondent, said that Prime Minister David Cameron's spokesperson left little doubt that the British government believed the plane was brought down by a bomb. Adams said that suspending flights both to and from a foreign country and insisting on your own technical experts assessing security demonstrated a lack of confidence in that country's own security measures.[69] Security experts and investigators have said the plane is unlikely to have been struck from the outside and Sinai militants are not believed to have any missiles capable of striking a jet at 30,000 feet.[73][74]

As France 2 reported on 6 November, European investigators had found that the cockpit voice recorder data is consistent with an explosion and the flight data recorder cuts off abruptly.[75]

On 8 November Reuters quoted an unnamed Egyptian investigation team member, speaking anonymously because of the sensitivity of the investigation, who said he was "90% sure" the jet was brought down by a bomb, based on an initial analysis of the last second of the cockpit voice recording. Lead investigator Ayman al-Muqaddam noted that other causes, such as lithium batteries overheating, a fuel explosion, or metal fatigue in the plane, still needed to be definitively ruled out.[22]

Missile hypothesis
In a report by UK newspaper The Guardian, a missile attack was "deemed unlikely" but the report stated that several airlines would avoid flying over Sinai while the crash was under investigation.[62] On 2 November, Metrojet spokesman Alexander Smirnov ruled out technical fault and pilot error as the cause of the crash and blamed an "external force".[76] ISIL's Wilayah Sinai claimed the incident was in revenge for Russian air strikes against militants in Syria, where IS controls territories, along with contiguous Iraqi territories. Wilayah Sinai was said not to have access to surface-to-air missiles capable of hitting an aircraft at high altitude since MANPADS can rarely reach even half the cruising altitude of an airliner, but analysts could not exclude the possibility of a bomb on board the flight.[77]

Egyptian Army spokesman Mohamed Samir rebutted the claims and pointed out that the investigation was ongoing.[78] Russian Transport Minister Maksim Sokolov dismissed the claims as "fabrications" due to a lack of evidence from Egyptian civil aviation and security officials and air traffic data.[79] James R. Clapper, United States Director of National Intelligence, said on 2 November that there was no evidence yet of terrorist involvement but that he would not rule it out.[80] On the same day, a source on the committee analysing the flight recorders said he believed that the plane was not struck from the outside and that the pilot did not make a distress signal before it disappeared from radar. He based his comments on the preliminary investigation of both flight recorders.[80]

Disruption to air traffic
The British government said that all flights due to leave Sharm el-Sheikh for Britain were delayed as a "precautionary measure" to allow experts to assess security. Emirates, Lufthansa and Air France–KLM announced they would avoid overflying the Sinai peninsula until the cause of the accident has been determined. The United States' Federal Aviation Administration had previously told carriers under its jurisdiction to operate above FL260 while flying over Sinai. Germany's Luftfahrt-Bundesamt had told its airlines the same thing.[6] Air Arabia, Flydubai and British Airways also stopped their flights over the Sinai Peninsula in response to the crash. The latter stated that they planned to continue flights over Sinai, although the intended alternative route was not announced. EasyJet initially stated that they would not halt their flights to and from Sharm el-Sheikh and Hurghada, but would actively review them; passengers who opted not to fly the route would be re-booked on another flight or given a flight voucher.[81]

Following a significant development in British intelligence,[82] on 4 November, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) changed their travel advice to advise against all but essential travel by air to Sharm el-Sheikh. As a result all British flights to and from the resort were cancelled from 4 November.[83][84] On the same day, the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA) issued an order to all Irish airline operators not to operate to/from Sharm el‐Sheikh Airport or in the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula airspace until further notice.[69][85]

The decision on 4 November by the British and Irish authorities to ground flights to and from Sharm el-Sheikh came within minutes of each other.[86] Patrick McLoughlin – UK Secretary of State for Transport – told Parliament that Ireland had investigators from the Air Accident Investigation Unit (AAIU) on the ground in Egypt reporting back to the Irish government, and the British and Irish governments have close security cooperation, indicating how the British government may have been able to gather intelligence about a possible bomb exploding on the aircraft before other countries and took the decision in unison with Ireland to order scheduled flights not to fly.[87]

On the morning of 5 November Air France-KLM announced that, following "national and international information" and "out of precaution", it would not allow hold baggage on its flight out from Cairo that day, causing over half of the booked passengers to refuse to fly.[88] There were an estimated 20,000 British citizens in Sharm el-Sheikh on 5 November, almost half of whom were on holiday and stranded by the cancellation of flights.[89][90] There was soon a decision to allow flights again to UK, from 6 November, to enable people to travel home, but with restrictions and increased security measures. Repatriation flights to the UK were organised by airlines and tour operators in liaison with the UK government. Passengers would be permitted to travel home with only hand luggage, with hold luggage to be returned following a more stringent screening process.[91] British officials at the airport provided extra security and approved planes as safe to travel.[90]

Russian President Vladimir Putin announced on 6 November that all Russian flights to and from Egypt would be cancelled.[92][93][94] Most British airlines serving the resort sent repatriation flights out to the resort in order to bring stranded British tourists back to the United Kingdom. On the afternoon of 6 November, Egyptian authorities placed restrictions on the number of flights due to overcrowding in the terminals; as a result only eight of the planned 29 repatriation flights were able to leave on the day with various flights forced to divert or return to the UK whilst in the air.[95][96]

By 8 November about 11,000 Russian tourists and about 5,300 British tourists had been flown back from the resort.[97][98]

International reactions
Russia[edit]
On 1 November 2015, the Government of Russia grounded all the A321 aircraft flown by Kogalymavia. The Russian news agency Interfax reported that the Russian transport regulator, Rostransnadzor, had requested Kogalymavia to stop flying its A321 aircraft until the cause(s) of the crash had been identified.[99] The Russian government also withdrew certification of a competing American-built airliner, the Boeing 737 (including 737 Classic and 737 Next Generation).[100]

Maria Zakharova, a spokeswoman for the Russian Foreign Ministry, stated that the Russian Embassy was following the events.[45] President Putin declared 1 November to be a national day of mourning in Russia.[101]

Egypt
Egyptian Prime Minister Sherif Ismail cancelled his meetings upon hearing news of the crash.[31] He was on his way to the crash site along with other ministers on a private jet, according to the Tourism Ministry.[36]

Ireland
The Republic of Ireland, as the state of aircraft registry, made an offer of assistance which was accepted by the Egyptian accident investigation authorities for the Irish Air Accident Investigation Unit (AAIU) of the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport to send a team consisting of an Operations/Pilot Inspector, an Engineering Inspector and a Regulatory/Operations Adviser from the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA) to assist in the investigation. The team flew out on Irish military aircraft on 2 November.[102]

Israel
Israel has a border with the Sinai peninsula, and offered to assist Russia and Egypt with surveillance if needed.[103]

United Kingdom
British intelligence became involved in the investigation.[when?][82] The UK government sent extra consular staff and half a dozen military planners to Egypt.[104] Egyptian President al-Sisi met British Prime Minister Cameron in London.[105] At a joint press conference with Cameron, President Sisi said Egypt would cooperate on improved security measures at Sharm el-Sheikh airport.[104] Cameron and Russian President Putin also discussed the investigation into the crash.[104] On 5 November, the government sent diplomatic staff including British embassy staff and FCO Rapid Deployment Teams to Sharm El Sheikh airport to help British nationals home.[106]

Airbus
Airbus posted a note on Twitter that announced it was "aware of the media reports" and that it would issue more "information as soon as available."[36] They also released a statement on their website confirming the aircraft's MSN and engine configuration.[107]

See also
Accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A320 family
List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
List of aircraft accidents and incidents resulting in at least 50 fatalities
Samsung Galaxy S5 Vector.svg2010s portal Aviacionavion.pngAviation portal SanFranHouses06.JPGDisasters portal Flag of Egypt.svgEgypt portal Flag of Russia.svgRussia portal
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ The previous deadliest Russian/Soviet air disaster was the crash of Aeroflot Flight 7425 in the Uzbek SSR (Uzbekistan) in 1985, in which 191 passengers and 9 crew died.
Jump up ^ The previous deadliest air disaster in Egyptian airspace was the crash of Flash Airlines Flight 604 shortly after takeoff from Sharm el-Sheikh in 2004. All 148 aboard were killed.
Jump up ^ The previous deadliest air disaster involving the Airbus A320 family was the crash of TAM Airlines Flight 3054 in São Paulo, Brazil in 2007,and which killed 199 people and also the second fatal accident involving an Airbus A321 surpassing AirBlue Flight 202 in which killed 152 people.
Jump up ^ The previous deadliest 2015 air disaster was the murder-suicide of Germanwings Flight 9525 that crashed in the French Alps, which killed all 150 aboard.
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Jump up ^ Graph based on CSV file published at: http://www.flightradar24.com/blog/crash-of-metrojet-flight-7k9268/
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Jump up ^ "По предварительным данным Посольства в Египте, среди погибших при катастрофе российского авиалайнера один гражданин Беларуси". МИД Беларуси. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
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^ Jump up to: a b ""Он сделал все возможное": бывшая жена погибшего пилота A321 не винит его в катастрофе" ["He did everything possible": former wife of the deceased A321 pilot does not blame him in the crash] (in Russian). NTV. 31 October 2015.
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