Saturday, December 29, 2012

The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association

The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is considered to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757 and has competitive performance and fuel efficiency in its class. It was developed for Aeroflot as a replacement for the medium-range Tupolev Tu-154 trijet. The latest version, with significant upgrades and improvements, is the Tu-204SM, which performed its first flight on 29 December 2010.[1]


 Design and development

The Tu-204 was designed as a family of aircraft incorporating passenger, cargo, combi and quick-change variants. It is powered by either two Aviadvigatel PS-90 or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines. The Tu-204 is produced at two of the largest Russian aircraft manufacturing plants in Ulyanovsk (Tu-204 series) and Kazan (Tu-214).[2]
A Cubana Tu-204-100E, August 2007
The Tu-204 cabin is available in several layouts, including the baseline single-class layout seating for 210 passengers and a two- or three-class layout designed for 164–193 passengers. A cargo version of the Tu-204 is being successfully operated by several airlines in Europe and Egypt.[2]
Both economy and Business class compartments are provided with passenger seats with 3–3 and 2–2 seating arrangements, respectively. The business class cabin has a seat pitch of 810 millimetres (31.9 in). The passenger cabin can be divided into compartments according to class with removable bulkheads and curtains. Compartments are illuminated by reflected light. Hidden lights located over and under the overhead bins create uniform and comfortable illumination. Overhead bins for passenger baggage and coats are of the closed type. The volume of baggage per passenger is 0.052 cubic metres (1.8 cu ft).[3]
In 1994, the first certificate for Tu-204 aircraft (with PS-90A engines) was issued. Subsequently issued certificates have extended estimated operational conditions and improved overall aircraft type design. The Tu-204-120 variant, certified with Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 engines, complies with noise regulations described in Chapter 3 of Supplement 16 to ICAO, hence meeting all current European and ICAO requirements.[4] It is currently undergoing the certification process with JAA. The Tu-204-100 variant, certified with PS-90A engines, complies with noise regulations described in Chapter 4 of Supplement 16 to ICAO which means it is quieter. The aircraft was certified to Russian standards AP-25 (harmonized with FAR-25 and JAR-25).[5]


Cockpit of a Tu-214
The Tu-204 is part of a new generation of Russian aircraft, including other recent developments such as the Ilyushin Il-96. The Tu-204 features many technological innovations such as, fly-by-wire, a glass cockpit, supercritical wings with winglets, along with Russian or foreign avionics.[6]



The Tu-204 is the basic passenger airline model, and the Tu-204C is the basic freight or cargo model. The most-used models are the -100C and the -120C.[7]


A Tupolev Tu-204C operated for DHL by Aviastar-TU at Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, Russia.
Certified in January, 1995, this initial version is powered by Soloviev (now Aviadvigatel) PS90 turbofans with 157 kN (35,300 lbf) of thrust, and uses Russian avionics in addition to its Russian engines. The Tu-204-200 is a heavier version with extra fuel for more range. Only one was built by Aviastar-SP in Ulyanovsk but has not yet been delivered (RA-64036). Now this version is only produced by KAPO in Kazan, marketed under the designation Tu-214. The Tu-204-100C and Tu-204-200C are cargo versions of the −100 and −200 respectively, fitted with a forward main deck freight door. Currently, the Tu-204-100/200 is offered with the option of an up-rated Aviadvigatel PS90A2 turbofan, which promises 40% more service between overhauls.[8]
The Tu-204-100's maximum take-off weight (MTOW) is 107.5 tonnes, and its range with 196 passengers in a two-class configuration is 6,000 kilometres (3,700 mi).


To broaden product appeal, the Tu-204-120/220 offers non-Russian avionics and engines. It is powered by two Rolls-Royce RB211-535 engines, each with thrust of 192 kN (43,100 lbf). Egypt's Cairo Aviation became the debut operator in November 1998 when it took delivery of a Tu-204-120 and its cargo version the Tu-204-120C. The Tu-204-220 and Tu-204-220C cargo version, are a higher gross weight variants of the basic Tu-204-120.[9]
The Tu-204-120 has a maximum takeoff weight of 103 metric tons and a range of 4,600 kilometres (2,500 nmi) with 196 passengers in a two-class seating configuration.


Air Koryo Tu-204-300 at Pyongyang
A shortened, longer-range and more efficient derivative of the Tu-204, the Tu-204-300 is also known as Tu-234. About six meters (20 ft) shorter than the basic Tu-204, this variant is available in two versions: the longer-ranged, heavier version, powered by Aviadvigatel PS90-A2 turbofans, has a maximum take-off weight of 107.5 metric tons and range (with 166 passengers) increased to 9,300 kilometres (5,000 nmi); and the lighter, shorter-ranged version, with a maximum take-off weight of 89 metric tons and range of 3,500 kilometres (1,900 nmi) with 166 passengers. The Russian airline Vladivostok Air is the debut customer. This airline's aircraft are in a two-class seating configuration, with a 142-passenger capacity. Average numbers of flight hours during each 24-hour period is 9.35 hours, for year 2009. It is also operated by Air Koryo which currently operates one Tu-204-300 and has one additional aircraft on order with options to replace five Тu-154s and four Il-62Ms. The Тu-204s operate on the Pyongyang-Beijing, Bangkok, Vladivostok, Shenyang and Kuala Lumpur (from April 19 on every Monday and Thursday) lines.[10]


This is a version of the Tu-204-300 optimized for shorter routes, featuring smaller wings and an increased cruising speed (to Mach 0.84), which makes it a competitor to the Next Generation Boeing 737. It is ETOPS rated, and fitted with a Honeywell 331-200ER APU.[11]


The planned experimental Tupolev Tu-206.
This variant is a company-funded testbed for alternative fuels, flying on liquefied natural gas [12]


Tu-214 is also a variation of Tu-204. It is technically a Tu-204-200, one of the differences being that it is built by a different factory. Planes designated Tu-204 are produced in Ulyanovsk by Aviastar-SP; Tu-214 in Kazan by the Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO).[13][14] Both factories are independent from the Tupolev design bureau and have some control over the design of the variant they produce.
The main difference is a full-size main door at the left side of the fuselage just before the wing. The Tu-204 has two main doors and 2 emergency doors; the Tu-214 has 3 doors and one emergency door.
In 2010 a total of 10 Tupolev Tu-214 aircraft are in airline service with a dozen on order. Tu-214 users are: Rossiya (5), Transaero (3) and Airstars (2). Transaero has an additional 7 orders for the aircraft.[15]


Observation version of Tu-204-200 equipped for Treaty on Open Skies missions. Two ordered by Russian Ministry of Defence, with delivery planned in 2012 and 2013.[16][17]


Airborne command post version. Two operated for Russian Ministry of Defence.[18][17]


Communications relay version. Two operated by GTK Rossiya for Russian government, with three more planned.[19][17][20]


Communications relay version for Russian Ministry of Defence. Two on order, with delivery planned by end of 2012.[17]


Prototypes of special-mission versions of the Tu-214 commercial transport aircraft,developed under the codename ‘Project 141'. The aircraft are configured to carry the MRC-411 multi-intelligence payload, to include electronic intelligence (ELINT) sensors, side-looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and other Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Communications Intelligence (COMINT). In addition, the aircraft will carry multi-spectral electro-optical systems.[21]


The Tu-204SM is medium-range airliner, with a seating capacity of 210 passengers, and 174 in a two-class layout. The plane targets the low-cost carrier market. This plane has been upgraded to meet relevant, and future Russian/International safety requirements, including new ICAO and Eurocontrol standards which includes all environmental parameters, noise, and emission levels.
The Tu-204SM will have a compact airframe. However the Tu-204SM will feature many design and aerodynamic similarities to the Tu-204-100/100E/100V. The aircraft's flight navigation system and avionics will permit a two-pilot crew.
The Tu-204SM is an upgraded variant of the Tu-204-100/300[22][23] upgrades include new TA-18 APU-200, new equipment, improved streamlining, and general aerodynamic design with improved interiors. An advanced Flight Control System equipment (ASO-204/FMS) with automatic on board system maintenance and diagnostics will be featured. The cockpit is automated with wide LCD displays, and Heads-Up Displays (HUD). There will be improvements in power systems (APU), control, fire safety, fuel management and hydraulic systems, and the aircraft's certification is expected to take place in 2011.
The Tu-204SM will implement an "E-Pilot" concept, and feature[22][23] new flight control and navigation equipment, a new VSUPT-85-204 computer, a new throttle management system, and a SCD-100-1 Computer Flight Management System. There will also be these following upgrades so the aircraft would be in compliance with international requirements and P-RNAV. The upgrades are a new system for measuring SIVD data, and a modern airplane equipment control system. It will also feature a KSEIS-204E electronic display and warning system. To also help simplify aircraft operations all controls are produced in English.
The upgrades to passenger/interior accommodations includes[22][23] new luggage shelves and under-floor compartment for large trunks, multi-colored LED lighting, sound-absorbing structures in the passenger cabin, audio and video displays for in-flight entertainment.
The Tu-204SM will feature advanced, and upgraded PS-90A2 engines,[24] a unified twin-spool turbofan engine with a high bypass ratio. The PS-90A2 has a life cycle cost decreased by 35% with simultaneous increase in reliability by 50 to 100%.
The PS-90A2 will pass AP-33 aviation standards certification, harmonized with FAR Part 33 and JAR33. The price for one Tu-204SM is estimated at $40–47 million.[25]

 Tu-204SM orders

Red Wings Airlines will be the first airline to purchase and operate the Tu-204SM. Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC) said it would complete negotiations with Red Wings for 44 Tu-204SM aircraft in February, to sign a firm order in March, 2011. Red Wings already operates a fleet of Tu-204-100 and Tu-204-100V jetliners, to which it added one airframe in 2010.[26] Russia’s largest aircraft lessor, Ilyushin Finance, has previously placed Tu-204-100 aircraft with Cubana, Air Koryo and Red Wings, and Tu-204-300s with Vladivostok Avia and Air Koryo. Additionally, IFC leases three Tu-214s (Tu-204-200s) to Transaero. Faced with low production rates for the Tu-204 models, Tupolev asked component providers to lower their prices in order to cut the plane's overall price by 27–30%. These suppliers agreed, on condition that 44 more firm orders be secured for the Tu-204SM through 2016.
By Jan 2012 a firm order from Red Wings had not been signed, the stumbling blocks being requests for guarantees of the residual value of the airframes and after-sales support at a cost the same as an equivalent Airbus or Boeing model. [27] `It was subsequently announced that Red Wings had cut back its initial commitment from 44 to 15 Tu-204SMs due to delays to the flight-test programme and after the lessor Ilyushin Finance reportedly "lost interest".[28]
A large order by Iran Air Tours is under threat because of sanctions against the Iranian economy, as the American company Pratt & Whitney has been involved in the development of the engine with the Perm Engine Company. Completing the sale by re-equipping the Tu-204SMs with the Tu-204's Russian-made PS-90A engines has been proposed.[29]
The test flight of Tu-204SM was successfully carried out on 29 December 2010.[1] First deliveries of Tu-204SM were planned for 2011.[23]


This Tu-204-300A is the first Tu-204 to be converted into a VIP configuration. Business Aero operates this aircraft for VTB
Total users (October 2010) [15][30]
AirlineAircraft TypeIn ServiceOn OrderStored
Egypt Cairo Aviation3 x 204-120
2 x 204-120C
Russia Dalavia214003
Russia Airstars214101
Russia Orenair204-100100
China Air China Cargo204-120CE001
United KingdomGermany DHL Aviation204-100C101
China China Cargo Airlines204-120CE020
Russia Aviastar-TU Co. Ltd204404
Russia KMV204-100200
Russia KrasAir214001
Palestinian National Authority Palestinian Authority (government)204-10001[31]0
Russia Rossiya (commercial)204002
Russia Rossiya (government)[32]214
2 x 204–300 (order)
Russia Vladivostok Avia204–300600
Cuba Cubana2 x 204-100CE
2 x 204-100E
North Korea Air Koryox1 204–300
x1 204-100[33][34]
Russia Transaero214370
Iran Iran Air and Iran Airtour[35]204030(−30)[36]0
Russia Red Wings204-100/204SM81 /44 (−44)[37]0
Russia Business Aero (for VTB)204–300A1[38]00
Russia VIM204SM0100
Syria Syrianair204SM03[39]0

 Production by year



Cockpit crewThreeTwoThree
Seating capacity210 (1-class, standard)
175 (2-class, standard)
164 (1-class, standard)
142 (2-class, standard)
Seat pitch32 in (1-class, standard)
39 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
32 in (1-class, standard)
41 & 32 in (2-class, standard)
Length46.14 metres (151 ft 5 in)40.19 metres (131 ft 10 in)
Wingspan41.8 metres (137 ft 2 in)
Wing area184.2 square metres (1,983 sq ft)
Height13.9 metres (45 ft 7 in)
Fuselage width3.8 metres (12 ft 6 in)
Fuselage height4.1 metres (13 ft 5 in)
Cabin width3.57 metres (11 ft 9 in)
Cabin height2.16 metres (7 ft 1 in)
Maximum take-off weight103,000 kilograms (230,000 lb)105,000 kilograms (230,000 lb)110,750 kilograms (244,200 lb)107,500 kilograms (237,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight88,000 kilograms (190,000 lb)89,500 kilograms (197,000 lb)93,000 kilograms (210,000 lb)88,000 kilograms (190,000 lb)
Maximum payload21,000 kilograms (46,000 lb)23,000 kilograms (51,000 lb)25,200 kilograms (56,000 lb)18,000 kilograms (40,000 lb)
Takeoff run at MTOW2,250 metres (7,380 ft)1,800 metres (5,900 ft)2,250 metres (7,380 ft)2,500 metres (8,200 ft)
Service ceiling12,600 metres (41,300 ft)12,100 metres (39,700 ft)
Cruising speed810 km/h to 850 km/h (503 mph to 528 mph)
Maximum speed900 km/h (560 mph)
Range fully loaded4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi)4,100 kilometres (2,500 mi)4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi)4,340 kilometres (2,700 mi)5,800 kilometres (3,600 mi)
Maximum fuel capacity41,000 L (9,000 imp gal; 11,000 US gal)35,700 kilograms (79,000 lb)44,600 L (9,800 imp gal; 11,800 US gal)45,000 L (9,900 imp gal; 12,000 US gal)
Engine (x 2)Aviadvigatel PS-90ARolls-Royce RB211-535E4Aviadvigatel PS-90A2Aviadvigatel PS-90A
Max. thrust (x 2)157 kN
16,000 Kgf; 35,274 lbf
186.3 kN
19,000 Kgf; 41,887 lbf
157 kN
16,000 Kgf; 35,274 lbf
158.2 kN
16,140 Kgf; 35,582 lbf
Sources: United Aircraft Corporation,[40] Tupolev,[41] 204SM.[22][42]

 Accidents and incidents

  • On March 22, 2010, Aviastar Flight 1906, an Aviastar Tupolev Tu-204 tail number RA-64011, crash-landed short of the runway near Moscow's Domodedovo International Airport while attempting to land at night in fog and poor visibility. There were no fatalities, but four of the eight crew members were seriously injured. It was a repositioning flight with no passengers on board. In September 2010, the МАК released their final report into the accident.[43] The cause of the accident was attributed to pilot error, with a number of factors contributing to the accident including inadequate crew training and lack of cockpit resource management, failure of autoflight systems and serious regulatory violations by Aviastar-TU.
  • On December 29, 2012 at 16:35 local time (12:35 GMT), a Red Wings TU-204 (RA-64047, cn 1450743164047), flight number RWZ9268[44][45][46] aircraft crashed after overrunning the runway at Moscow Vnukovo International Airport following a flight from Pardubice Airport in the Czech Republic. The aircraft broke up and caught fire after landing. Vnukovo airport says there were only 8-12 crew members onboard, no passengers were on board, however both pilots the flight engineer and a flight attendant were killed[44] The aircraft was built in 2008, pilot error was cited as a preliminary reason for the crash.[45][47]

 See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era


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  46. ^ BBC News "Russian plane crashes into road outside Moscow" (Accessed 29/12/2012)
  47. ^

 External links